Greek Gods and Goddesses List

Possible Cultural sources of Greek Gods and Goddesses with the possible meaning of their names.

  • Ζεὺς — Zeus — ‘sky god’ from Indo-European ‘deiw-, ‘to shine’ and ‘uper’, ‘over’
  • Δήμητραν — Demeter — ‘goddess mother’ from Indo-European ‘deiw-‘, ‘To shine, and ‘mater’, ‘mother’
  • Hestia — Indo-European (Being?)
  • Poseidon — Indo-European (Husband of Ida)
  • Hades — Indo-European (Invisible?)
  • Rhea — Minoan (flowing stream?)
  • Cronus — Minoan (flight of a hawk?; crown is related to circle)
  • Άρτεμις — Artemis — Believed to be Minoan but her name seems Indo-European and may be ‘dark arrows’ from Indo-European ‘arkw-‘ , ‘bow and arrow’ and ‘teme’, ‘dark’
  • Athena — Minoan and then Mycenaean (A-ta-na-po-ti-ni-ja is her Mycenaean name but this comes from Minoan A-ta-na-dju-wa-ja which means sun goddess. Athena may also relate to the Sumerian goddess Inanna. Ninnanna, which means ‘queen of the sky. She is also called Ninsianna as the personification of the planet Venus. Greek Athe:nƒ is a feminine form of the base *athe:n, which, we assert, is distantly cognate with Sumerian et-an[n]a(k) (probably better: *ad-an[n]a(k)), “strong one of the sky”, the eagle. A possible translation of the name might be ‘spring provider’ from Indo-European ‘ai-‘, ‘To give, allot’ and ‘dhen-1′, ‘to run, flow’. This would make her sort of a mistress of water nymphs.
  • Hera — Aegean (Protectress)
  • Ἑρμάωυι(Hesiod),Ἑρμῆς(Liddell & Scott ) — Hermes — Aegean
  • Apollo — Ionian
  • Ἀφροδίτης — Aphrodite – Cyprus but maybe also the Mideast. The translation of the name ‘Born of the foam’ from ‘ἀφρός’, ‘faom, of the sea’ is ancient and did influence myth and ritual for the goddess. But an Indo-European derivation of ‘spring goddess’ from ‘bhre-‘, ‘To boil and bubble’ and ‘deiw-‘, ‘To shine’ seems more promising. The ‘…dite’ part could refer to the fact that there are two sexes involved in love. The relation of the ‘…dite’ to ‘deik-‘ is also promising because this word has changed to ‘dite’ some languages. ‘deik-‘ also relates to the Greek ‘δίκη’, ‘law’ which has a divine connotation. But ‘deik-‘ seems more generally to ‘δίκην’ in ancient Greek names of women. Most likely is the possibility that the work comes to us from the Minoan culture
  • Dionysus – Thrace
  • Ἄρηος — Ares – Thrace
  • Amphitrite – Mycenaean (the third one who encircles)
  • Circe – Mycenaean (hawk, or falcon)

A List of Greek Gods and Goddesses

A single culture dominated Greece with varying languages and customs before 338 BC. The whole culture accomodated individual beliefs in a variety of ways. Each community had some unique beliefs, rituals, and festivals. The many different beliefs combined into one system. Uranus, the sky god, and Gaea, the earth goddess, united sexually to form a geneology of all the deities. Reality was divided into many realms and any deities with common realms were merged. Each deity was assured a unique realm. Realms could be subdivided in a way that was reflected in the geneology of the deities. The ancient Greeks called the culture Hellas. They referred to themselves as Hellenes. This type of religion is referred to as polytheism. The divine pantheon included:

  • Zeus — Ζεύς, the chief god. The realm of Zeus is the universe but particulary the elements and of moral law and order.
  • Poseidon — Ποσειδων(Aidoneus, Ἀιδωνεύς), god of the sea and the watery elements, earthquakes, and horses. Ἀιδωνεύς is mentioned Aeschylus, Persians line 650
  • Hades — Ἡαδης, god of the lower world, the place of the dead.
  • Hestia — Ἑστία, goddess of the hearth and the home.
  • Hera — Ἡρα, goddess of women an marriage, and queen of the heaven.
  • Ares — Άρης, god of war.
  • Athena — Ἀθηνά, goddess of civic duties, wise in industries of peace and arts of war.
  • Apollo — Aπόλλων, the god of manly youth and beauty, poetry, music, oracles, and
    healing.
  • Aphrodite — Aφροδίτη, the goddess of love, both earthly and heavenly.
  • Hermes — Ἡρμής, the messenger of the gods, giver of increase to herds, guardian of
    boundaries and of roads, and their commerce. He was god of science and
    invention, of eloquence, cunning, trickery,theft, of luck and treasure trove,
    and conductor of the dead to Hades.
  • Artemis — Άρτεμις, the huntress of the gods and goddess of wild things and wild nature.
  • Hephaestus — Ἡφαιστος, god of fire, blacksmiths, and of artisans.
  • Nyx — – night
  • Ananke – goddess of necessity

In addition to these there were many lesser deities including:

Children of Pontus and Gaea:

  • Aetna –
  • Eurybia –
  • Nereus –
  • Phorcys –
  • Ceto
  • Thaumas –
  1. Muses: (Presided over the arts and sciences and inspired those who excelled in these pursuits). A picture of the Muses is at:
    Main panel: cowherd and six Muses, Boston 98.887

    • Calliope — Καλλιόπη– ‘Beautiful voiced’, ‘*kal-yo-op’ from Indo-European ‘kal-2′, ‘beautiful, ‘yu-2′, ‘Outcry of exaltation’ and op-‘, ‘to work, perform, bring about’
    • Clio — Κλειώ — ‘Praiseworthy’, ‘suffixed form’, ‘*klew-es yo’ from Indo-European ‘kleu-‘, ‘To hear’, ‘es-‘, ‘to be’, and ‘yu-2′
      , ‘Outcry of exaltation’
    • Erato — Ὲρατώ — ‘Lovely’ from Indo-European ‘ser-1′, ‘To Protect’ and ‘to-‘, ‘the(this one)’ (Obviously ‘Era’ is related to ‘Eros’ but the derivation of ‘Eros’ is uncertain. The suspicion is that Hera, hero, and Eros are all related words.
    • Euterpe — Εὺτέρπη–‘Well delighting’ from Indo-European ‘ei-1′, ‘To go’ and ‘terp-‘, ‘To satisfy oneself’
    • Melpomene — Μελπομένη –‘Singing’, ‘mel-po-me-ne’ from Indo-European ‘mel-3′, ‘a limb(a musical phrase)’, ‘poi-1′, ‘To drink’, and ‘me-2′, ‘measure’, ‘ne-‘, ‘not’
    • Polyhymnia (Polymnia} — Πολύμνιά — ‘Many hymning’, from Indo-European ‘pel-8′, ‘To fill’, ‘2. bherem-‘, ‘to hum, buzz, drone’ and ‘gu̯ē̆nā’, ‘queen, wife, woman
    • Terpsichore — Τερψιχόρη — ‘Delight in dance’ from Indo-European ‘terp-‘, ‘To satisfy oneself’, ‘gher-2′, ‘To grasp, enclosure’ The connection between dancing and an enclosure is surely evident in this quote from the Iliad (Book XVIII): “Furthermore he wrought a green, like that which Daedalus once made in Cnossus for lovely Ariadne. Hereon there danced youths and maidens whom all would woo, with their hands on one another’s wrists. The maidens wore robes of light linen, and the youths well woven shirts that were slightly oiled. The girls were crowned with garlands, while the young men had daggers of gold that hung by silver baldrics; sometimes they would dance deftly in a ring with merry twinkling feet, as it were a potter sitting at his work and making trial of his wheel to see whether it will run, and sometimes they would go all in line with one another, and much people was gathered joyously about the green. There was a bard also to sing to them and play his lyre, while two tumblers went about performing in the midst of them when the man struck up with his tune.”
    • Thalia — Θάλειά — ‘Blooming’ from Indo-European ‘dhal-‘, ‘To Bloom’ and ‘ei’, ‘To go’
    • Urania — Ὀὐρανίη– ‘Heavenly’ from Indo-European ‘wer-8′, ‘Wide, broad’ and ‘gu̯ē̆nā’, ‘queen, wife, woman’
  2. Daughters of Zeus and Themis:
    • Ὧραι — Horae (Seasons or Hours) from Indo-European ‘1. ei-‘, ‘to go’ and ‘rēt-, rōt-, rət-‘, ‘stick, pole, rood; stem, trunk':
      • Hesiodic:
        • Εἰρήνη — Eirene (Goddess of Peace)
        • Εὐνομία — Eunomia (Goddess of Order)
        • Δίκη — Dike (Goddess of Justice) from Indo-European ‘dhēigu̯- ‘to plant, stab, stick’
      • Homeric:
        • Thallo- Spring
        • Carpo – Autumn
    • Moerae (Fates), Moirai
      • Clotho – Κλωθώ – spinner
      • Lachesis – Λάχεσις – apportioner
      • Atropos – Άτροπος – inflexible (cutter)
  3. Daughters of Zeus and Eurynome, — Graces, Charities in Greek ‘Χαριτες’ from Indo-European ‘g̑her-‘, ‘to yearn for, desire’.
    • The single goddess: Charis — Χάρις — pleasing, grace, charm, charms from Indo-European ‘g̑her-‘, ‘to yearn for, desire’
    • The triple goddess:
      • Aglaia – Αγλαί̈ην, splendor from Indo-European ‘gel-2′, ‘bright’.
      • Euphrosyne – Εὐφροσύνην, cheerful from Indo-European ‘gwhren-‘, ‘to think’
      • Thalia – Θαλίην, the blooming one from Indo-European ‘dhal-‘, ‘to bloom’ and ‘ya’, ‘to be aroused’
    • Other Charities:
      • Kleta – goddess of invitations
      • Phaenna – shining
      • Auxo boasting, pride
      • Hegemone
  4. Nymphs:
    • Alseides — a species of Nymphs who lived in forests, groves, and glens, who liked to frighten solitary travelers.
    • Amalthea
    • Callisto – goddess of the most beautiful, companion of Artemis
    • Καλυψὼ — Calypso – The concealer
    • Daphne
    • Echo – Nymph who only repeats.
    • Leiriope – goddess of Lilies, mother of Narcissus
    • Napaea – a class of forest nymphs who startled travelers
    • Oenone – Οινώνη — ‘goddess of being ordinary’ from Indo-European ‘oi-no-, oi-u̯o-‘, (demonstrative particle: one, this, etc.). She attached to Paris while he was a shepherd. When he was wounded and returned to her she had to reject him because he was famous.
    • Oreithyia – goddess of the flowers blooming on the hills
    • Praxithea – goddess of business(commerce), a water nymph and wife of Erichthonius
    • Salamacis – goddess of sexual weakness – the Naiad Nymph of a spring of the town of Halikarnassos in Karia (Anatolia).
    • Syrinx – goddess of the reed out of which panpipes are made
    • Θόωσα — Thoosa – ‘speedy, swift’ from Indo-European ‘dheu-‘, ‘to flow, run’ and ‘ā’, (an exclamation) — daughter of Phorcys, Mother of Polyphemus, Odyssey 1.71.
  5. Hesperides, guarders of the golden apples of Hera:
    • Aegle – a nymph of Poplars
    • Erytheia – goddess of the sunset
    • Hestia, – goddess of the essence of things
    • Arethusa – goddess of good water from the earth
    • Hesperia – goddess of the evening
  6. Monsters,
    • Centaur
    • Σερήνων — Sirens, three of the following:
      • Aglaopheme – goddess of the beautiful frame
      • Leucosia — goddess of light and fair skin
      • Ligeia — goddess of sounding shrill
      • Molpe — goddess of dance and rhythmic movement
      • Parthenope — goddess of the maiden voice
      • Pisinoe — goddess of affecting the mind
      • Raidne — goddess of sprinkling water
      • Teles — goddess of perfection
      • Thelxiepia — goddess of charm
    • Sphinx
    • Gorgons — Three ladies with snakes as hair and eyes that could turn
      people to stone. They were:

      • Medusa, goddess of death
      • Sthenno, goddess of a trial of strength.
      • Euryale — goddess of the broad threshing floor
    • Scylla –Σκύλλᾰ — goddess of dead bodies, many headed sea monster.
    • Charybdis –Χάρυβδις — goddess of rapaciousness, a whirlpool monster on the coast of Sicily
    • Chimaera -Χίμαιρα – goddess of volcanoes, a fire breathing monster.
    • Minotaur – lower half man, upperhalf bull.
    • Python – very large snake.
    • Satyr
    • Triton
    • Ἁρπυιων(Hesiod) — Harpies
      • Νικοθόην — Nicothoe — victory cloud
      • Ἀελλόπουν — Aellopous — storm swift
      • Ὠκυπόδην (Hesiod) — Ocypode — Swift-footed
    • ἀμφίσβαινα — Amphisbaena — a kind of serpent, that can go either forwards or backwards, Aeschylus, Agamemnon , line 1233
  7. Circe – goddess of Aeaea, also the goddess of transformations.
  8. Ino, daughter of Cadmas transformed into the sea goddess Leucotheia. Leucotheia is the white goddess and goddess of the moon. As a sea goddess of the moon she must have been associated with the tides. The name may be derivied from the Indo European ‘wei-‘, ‘to turn, twist’ This relates to Ino in the Odyssey as she provides a veil that binds him.
  9. Demeter — Δήμητρα(Δήμητρος in Hesiod) — ‘people mother’ From Indo-European ‘da-‘, ‘To divide’ and ‘mater-‘, the goddess of agriculture, fertility and marriage.
  10. Dione — ‘goddess unique’ From Indo-European ‘deiw’, ‘To shine’ and ‘oino-‘, ‘One, unique’, a Titan
  11. Eileithyia, goddess of childbirth
  12. Ἥβην — Hebe, goddess of youth. ‘youthful strenghth’ from Indo-European ‘i̯ēgu̯ā’, ‘force, strength'(But notice this is often ‘iphi-‘. Perhaps the name began as yegwa+bha-1 where ‘bha-1′ means ‘to shine’. The next change might have been to ‘Iphibe’ and then Hebe’
  13. Persephone — goddess of the underworld and the goddess of spring,
  14. Nemesis, personification of divine vengeance needed to maintain an equilibrium. From Indo-European ‘nem-‘ ‘To assign, allot’ and ‘es-‘, ‘To be’
  15. daughters of Strife(Eris). Eris — ‘strife’ from Indo-European ‘er-‘, ‘to move, set in motion’
    • Ponus — ‘sorrow’ from Indo-European ‘(s)pen(-d)-‘, ‘to pull, spin’
    • Lethe — forgetfulness
    • Limus — hunger
    • Algea — goddess pain
    • Ate — goddess of error. Perhaps from ‘a-teu’, ‘without paying attention to’ from Indo-European ‘ne-‘, ‘not’ and ‘teu-‘, ‘To pay attention to’
    • Harcus — the oath
  16. Tyche – goddess of chance

Hecate — Ἑκάτην –was a goddess of the underworld, perhaps best identified as the goddess that consumed souls into the underworld. She was also a goddess of luck and a Titan.

Ἰριν — Iris — from Indo-European ‘wei’, ‘to turn, twist and ‘rei-2′, ‘striped, in various colors'; a personification of the rainbow and a messenger of the gods.

The Furies — Three ladies who pursued evil
doers and sinners. They were persistent but just. (Eumenides, Erynies)

  • Tisiphone — Means “avenging murder” in Greek, derived from tisis “vengeance” and phone “murder”.
  • Alecto – the Unceasing
  • Megaera – the Grudging

Nereides are marine nymphs of the Mediterranean Sea, daughters of Doris
(Doto, gifts of the sea were offered generously)
and Nereus.

Nereids (Νηρηί̈δες) in Homer Book 18 Iliad.

  1. Θέτις — Thetis — ‘Soul of the wave’ from Indo-European ‘dheu-‘, ‘To rise in a cloud’ and ‘teue’, ‘To swell’.
  2. Γλαύκη — Glauce or Glauke, Würzburg L 540 ‘glaring fiercely’ from Indo-European ‘glogh’ ‘thorn, point’ and ‘kei-3′, ‘To set in motion’
  3. Θάλειά — Θάλειά — ‘Blooming’ from Indo-European ‘dhal-‘, ‘To Bloom’ and ‘ya’, ‘to be aroused’.
  4. Κυμοδόκη — Cymodoce — ‘wave receiver’ from Indo-European ‘keu-3′, ‘To swell’, ‘mo-‘, ‘to exert onself’, ‘dek-‘, ‘To take, accept’, ‘e’, ‘off, away’
  5. Νησαίη — Nesaea or Nesea ‘journey’ from Indo-European ‘nes-‘, ‘To return home safely’ and ‘ei-1′, ‘To go’ (ησ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  6. Σπειώ — Speio or Speo — ‘announce prosperity’ from Indo-European ‘spei-‘, ‘To thrive, prosper’ and ‘o-‘, ‘to announce’.
  7. Θόη — Thoe — ‘cloud’, from Indo-European ‘dheu’, ‘to rise as a cloud’.
  8. Ἁλίη τε βοῶπις — ox eyed Halie — ‘Go to bloom’ from Indo-European ‘dhal-‘, ‘To Bloom’ and ‘ei-1′, ‘To go’.
  9. Κυμοθόη — Cymothoe or Kymathoe, Würzburg L 540 — ‘wave cloud’ from Indo-European ‘keu-3′, ‘To swell’, ‘mo-‘, ‘to exert onself’,’dheu’, ‘to rise as a cloud’.
  10. Ἀκταίη — Actaee — ‘Shore dweller’ from Indo-European ‘ak-‘, ‘Sharp’ and ‘treb-‘, ‘Dwelling’
  11. Λιμνώρεια — Limnoreia — ‘lake shore dweller’ from Indo-European ‘laku-‘, ‘Lake’, ‘rei’, ‘scratch, tear, cut’, and ‘ya’, ‘to be aroused’ (This ia a good candidate for a loan word from the Minoan culture)
  12. Μελίτη — Melite, Würzburg L 540 ‘Like honey’ from Indo European ‘melit-‘, ‘honey’ and ‘ei-‘, ‘to go’.(ελ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  13. Ἴαιρα — Iaera — ‘changing seasons’ from Indo-European ‘ei-‘, ‘to go” (‘i̯ē-ro-‘, ‘year, summer’), (αιρ indicates loan word not IE)
  14. Ἀμφιθόη — Amphithoe –‘flowing around’ from Indo-European ‘ambhi’, ‘around, at both sides’ and ‘dheu-‘, ‘to flow, run’.
  15. Ἀγαυὴ — Agave ‘Illustrious’ from Indo-European ‘ag-‘, ‘to drive’ and ‘ei-‘, To go’.
  16. Δωτώ — Doto — ‘give over, present, gift’ from Indo-European ‘do-, ‘to give’ and ‘ato-‘, ‘over, beyond’. Pausanias(bk2.1.8) “In Gabala is a holy sanctuary of Doto”.
  17. Πρωτώ — Proto — ‘beginning’ from Indo-European ‘per-‘, ‘To pass over/beyond
    ‘ and ‘ato-‘, ‘over, beyond’.
  18. Φέρουσά — Pherusa — ‘carry sound’ from Indo-European ‘bher-‘, ‘to bear, bring, carry’ and ‘ōus-‘, ‘ear’
  19. Δυναμένη — Dynamene — ‘enduring power’ from Indo-European ‘deu-‘, ‘to worship, venerate; mighty’, ‘men-‘, ‘to stay, remain, stand still’. (αμ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  20. Δεξαμένη — Dexamene ‘receptacle, tank, cistern’ from Indo-European ‘dek̑-‘. ‘To take, accept’ and ‘men-‘, ‘to stay, remain, stand still’.((αμ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  21. Ἀμφινόμη — Amphinome — ‘surrounder’ from Greek ‘ἀμφί’, ‘on both sides, and ‘νομή’, ‘distribution’ from Indo-European ‘ambhi’, ‘around’ and ‘nem-2′. ‘To assign, allot’.
  22. Καλλιάνειρα — Callineira — ‘beautifully strung together’ from Greek ‘καλλῐ’, ‘beautiful’ and ‘ἀνείρω’, ‘fasten on or to, strung’ from Indo-European ‘kal-‘, ‘handsome, beautiful; healthy’ and ‘an-‘, ‘there, other side’, ‘eres-‘,’to stab, pierce’. (αλλ, ειρ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  23. Δωρὶς — Doris — ‘gift’ from Indo-European ‘dō- : də-, also dō-u- : dəu- : du-‘, ‘to give, donate’ and ‘4. rei- : rēi-‘, ‘thing, possession’
  24. Πανόπη — Panope — ‘visible to all’ from Greek ‘πᾰν’, ‘all’ and ‘ὅπη’, ‘in what direction’ from Indo-European ‘keu-‘, ‘to swell’ and ‘oku̯-‘, ‘to see; eye'(αν makes this a pre IE loan word)
  25. Γαλάτεια — Galatea — ‘blow over’ from ‘ghel-‘, ‘ghel- ‘to call, cry’ and ‘ati’,’over, beyond’ (αλ,άτ makes this a pre IE loan word) Every myth associated with Galatea as Nereid or mortal relates to a transformation and none relate to milk, the more common derivation of the name.
  26. Νημερτής — Nemertes — ‘unerring, infallible’ from Greek ‘νέμω’, ‘deal out, dispense’ and ‘ἐρτός’, ‘threaded, passed through’from Indo-European ‘nem-‘, ‘To assign, allot’ and ‘er-‘, ‘to move, set in motion'; ‘(s)teu-‘, ‘to hit, push, thrust’ (ερ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  27. Ἀψευδὴς — Apseudes — ‘grow into an aspen (goddess)’ from Indo-European ‘aspu-‘, ‘Aspen’, ‘ud-‘, ‘up, out’, and ‘es-‘, ‘To be’
  28. Καλλιάνασσα — Callianassa — ‘Beauty queen’ from Indo-European ‘kal-2′, ‘beautiful’, and from Proto-Greek ‘Wanax’, ‘lord'(αλλ, ασσ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  29. Κλυμένη — Klymene — ‘famous for ability’ from Greek ‘κλειυός’,’famous’ and ‘μένος’, ‘might, force’ from Indo-European ‘kleu’ to hear and ‘magh-1′, ‘To be able, have power’
  30. Ἰάνειρά — Ianeira — Exciting to man from Indo-European ‘ya-‘, ‘to be aroused’ and ‘ner-2′ man(ειρ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  31. Ἰάνασσα — Ianassa — ‘excited Queen’ from Indo-European ‘ya-‘, ‘to be aroused’ and and from Proto-Greek ‘Wanax’, ‘lord’ (ἄνασσα means queen in Greek) (ασσ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  32. Μαῖρα — Maera — ‘the dog star, the sparkler’ (There may be no Indo-European Translation of this name.
  33. Ὠρείθυια — Oreithuia — ‘mountain juniper’ from Indo-European ‘gu̯or-‘, ‘mountain’, and Greek ‘θυἰα’, ‘odorous cedar, Juniperus foetidissima’
  34. Ἀμάθεια — Amatheia — ‘mother suckler’ from Indo-European ‘amma-‘, ‘mother’, and ‘dhē(i)-‘, ‘to suck, suckle’
  35. Νηρηίδες — ‘sea nymph’ plainly ‘ner-‘ relates to Nereus the father of the Nereids. But to be Indo-European some other meaning must apply. ‘ner-1′ means under,; also left, with an eastward orientation, north’. Under the sea makes sense but one would expect a water reference. ‘eus-‘ means to burn. This relates to the easetn idea, the direction of the sunrise. Is it possible that the nymphs were called this because of the direction of the water to the east? This fits the Greek mainland. It is hard to understand why there are two types of sea nymphs, Nereids and Oceanides in Greek mythology. One possibility is that the names are actually Minoan and the distinction relates to Crete, Nereides to the north and Oceanides to the south. But the only loan word among the Nereides seems to be ‘Maera’. This is not a compelling argument for a Minoan source for the Nereides. The ‘-id,-ides’ suffix probably relates to Indo-European: ‘1. u̯ebh-‘, ‘to plait, weave, waver, move back and forth’. This seems to be a attempt to define women by a common task of women.
  36. Nao, Würzburg L 540, ‘helper’ from ‘nā-‘, ‘to help, be useful’, Not in Homer
  37. Kymatolege, Würzburg L 540 — Κῡμᾰτολήγη – ‘Wave-stiller’ not Indo-European ,Not in Homer
  38. Psamathe — not Indo-European, Not in Homer. Said to mean “goddess of sand”, “θεά της άμμου”,
    but I cannot verify it
  39. Glauconome is a Nereid in Apolod. 1.2.6, ‘fish catch’ from Indo-European ‘dhel-‘, ‘to light; shining’ and ‘nem-2′. ‘To assign, allot. “

The underlined ones have links to pictures. The directory gives other
links.

Oceanides were daughters of Oceanus and Tethys. Here is a list from Hesiod(Theogony. 346-370):

  • Πειθώ — Peitho — persuasion as a goddess from Greek ‘πειθώ’, ‘persuasion’ from Indo-European ‘pēu- ‘to hit; sharp’ and ‘dhēs- (used in religious terms)’.
  • Ἀδμήτη — Admete — ‘virgin’ from Greek ‘ἀδμῆτις’, ‘Virgin’ from Indo-European ‘ad-‘, ‘to, near, at’ and ‘mater’, ‘mother’
  • Ἰάνθη — Ianthe — ‘goddess of the Ionian Sea’ Most derivations say ‘violet colored’ from Greek ‘ἰάνΘῐνος’ from a mediterannean origin ‘ion’ (oid- + ine-. ) But why have a goddess of violet? Another possibility is the relation of the goddess to the Ionian sea.
  • Ήλέκτρη — Electra — ‘light play’ from Indo-European: ‘wlek-‘, ‘light’ and ‘ter-3′, ‘To cross over, pass through, overcome’
  • Δωρίς — Doris — honorable gift (dôros) from Indo-Eruopean ‘do-‘, ‘to give’ and ‘rei-‘, ‘possession, thing’.
  • Πρυμνώ — Prymno — ‘fair wind’ from Indo-European ‘per-‘, ‘to pass over/beyond’ and ‘nōt- ‘rump, backside’ (a fair wind is a wind on your back when sailing)
  • Οὐρανίη — Ourania – heavenly from Indo-European ‘1. ei-‘, ‘to go, exit’ and ‘gu̯ē̆nā’, ‘queen, wife, woman’
  • Ἱππώ — Hippo — ‘goddess of stables and posting stations’ from Greek ‘ἱππών’, ‘stable or posting station’ from Indo-European ‘ekwo-‘, ‘horse’ and ‘nā-‘, ‘to help, be useful’.
  • Κλυμένη — Clymene — ‘famous for ability’ from Greek ‘κλειυός’,’famous’ and ‘μένος’, ‘might, force’ from Indo-European ‘kleu’ to hear and ‘magh-1′, ‘To be able, have power’
  • Ρόδειά — Rhodeia — ‘like a rose, rosy’ from Greek ‘ροδειος’, ‘of roses’ from Indo-European u̯er- ‘to bend, turn’ and ‘dei- ‘to shine, glitter; day, sun; God”. This is related to the word ‘briar’
  • Καλλιρόη — Callirhoe — ‘beautifully flowing voice’ from Greek ‘καλλῐ’, ‘beautiful’ and ‘Indo-European ‘kal-2′, ‘beautiful’, ‘la-‘, ‘echoic root’ and ‘reu-‘bellow’.) (αλλ makes this a pre IE loan word)(
  • Ζευξώ — Zeuxo — ‘yoker of oxen’ From Greek ‘ζεῦξις’ , ‘yoking oxen’ and from Indo-European ‘i̯eu-‘, ‘to yoke, tie together’ and ‘gu̯ou-‘, ‘cow, ox’.
  • Κλυτίη — Clytia — ‘glorious’ from Greek ‘κλῠτός’, ‘renowned, glorious’ and from Indo-European – ‘kleu-1′, ‘to hear’ and ‘tu̯ei-‘, ‘to shake, excite, move back and forth; to shimmer’
  • Ἰδυῖά — Idyia — ‘mental visualization’ from Greek ‘ἰδυῖα’ from Indo-European ‘u̯(e)id-‘, ‘to see, know’ and ‘ya-‘, ‘to be aroused’. She was wife of Aeetes and mother of Medea.
  • Πασιθόη — Pasithoe — All-Swift is doubtful ‘all spirit’ is more likely, but perhaps ‘spreading influence of spirit’ might be better from Indo-European ‘pet- ‘to stretch out (esp. arms)’ and ‘dhēs- (used in religious terms)’. (ασ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  • Πληξαύρη — Plexaura — ‘puff’ from Greek ‘πλῆξις’, ‘stroke, percussion’ and ‘αὔρα’, ‘breeze’ from Indo-European ‘pleus-‘, ‘to pluck’ and ‘we-‘, ‘breath’
  • Γαλαξαύρη — Galaxaure — Crying breeze from ‘ghel- ‘to call, cry’ and ‘αὔρα’, ‘breeze’ (αλ, αξ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  • Διώνη — Dione — ‘uplifting goddess’ From Greek ‘Δῐο’, ‘godlike’ and ‘νή’, ‘particle of strong affirmation’ from Indo-European ‘deiw-‘, ‘sky, heaven, god’ and ‘nei-‘, ‘to be moved, excited; to shine’.
  • Μηλόβοσίς — Melobosis — ‘flock-grazing’ from Greek ‘μηλοβόσις’ from Indo-European ‘melo-‘, ‘small animal’ and ‘pō(i)- ‘to graze, pasture”.
  • Θόη — Thoe — ‘dew’ from Indo-European ‘dheu-‘, ‘to rise in a cloud’.
  • Πολυδώρη — Polydora – ‘many gifts’ from Indo-European ‘1. pel-, pelə-, plē-‘, ‘to pour, fill; full; town?’ and ‘dō- : də-, also dō-u- : dəu- : du-‘, ‘to give, donate’ and ‘4. rei- : rēi-‘, ‘thing, possession’ (This may relate to suitors’ gifts)
  • Κερκηίς — Cerceis — ‘Of the Weaving Shuttle’ from Greek ‘κερκίς’ from Indo-European ‘3. k̑er-‘, ‘rope, string; to plait, weave’ and ‘kei-‘, ‘To set in motion'( ερ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  • Πλουτώ — Pluto — ‘Wealth’ from Greek ‘πλοῦτος’ from Indo-European ‘pleu’, ‘to flow, run; to swim’ and ‘teue-‘, ‘swell’
  • Περσηίς — Perseis — ‘Destroyer, Ravager’ from Indo-European ‘per-2′, ‘To lead’ and ‘sai-‘, ‘suffering’. She eas the mother of Circe and wife of Aetes
  • Ἰάνειρά — Ianeira — ‘Man exciter’ from Indo-European ‘ya-‘, ‘to be aroused’ and ‘ner-2′ man.(ειρ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  • Ἀκάστη — Acaste — ‘Brightest star’ from Indo-European ‘ak-‘, ‘Sharp’ and ‘ster-3′, ‘star’.
  • Ξάνθη — Xanthe — ‘rules the sun’ from Indo-European ‘ksei-‘, ‘to rule’ and ‘sawel-‘, ‘The sun’
  • Πετραίη — Petraea — ‘protective power’ from Indo-European ‘pa-‘, ‘to feed, protect’ and ‘treu-‘, ‘to thrive’ ( ετ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  • Μενεσθώ — Menestho — ‘thought soul’ from Indo-European ‘men-1′, ‘To think’ and ‘dheu-‘, ‘To rise in a cloud’.
  • Εὐρώπη — Europa — land of the setting sun(from semetic?) but try ‘dressed in stripes’ from Indo-European ‘eu-‘, ‘To dress, and ‘rei-2′, ‘Striped in various colors’ (sunsets are often depicted as striped), but ‘generous provider’ from Indo-European ‘wer-8′, ‘Wide, broad’ and ‘pa-‘, To feed protect’ is also possible.
  • Μῆτίς — Metis, Counsel, Plan,Devise’ from Indo-European ‘me-‘, ‘to measure’ and ‘dhes-‘. ‘religious’.
  • Εὐρυνόμη — Eurynome — ‘Wide allotment’ ‘wer-8′, ‘Wide, broad’ and ‘nem-2′. ‘To assign, allot.(eury, nomos)
  • Τελεστώ — Telesto — ‘Success’ from Indo-European ‘tel-‘, ‘to lift, support’ and ‘es-‘, ‘To be’.(ελ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  • Χρυσηίς — Chryseis — ‘Gold seeker’ from Hebrew ‘haruz’, ‘Gold’ ‘sag-‘, ‘Seeker’
  • Ἀσίη — Asia — place of the rising sun (from akkadian asu) but try ‘glowing reddish’ from Indo-European ‘as-‘, to burn, glow and ‘ei-‘, ‘reddish’. Asia was the wife of Prometheus.
  • Καλυψὼ — Calypso ‘beautiful taker’ from Indo-European ‘kal-2′, ‘beautiful’ and ‘leup-‘, ‘To peel off’.(αλ makes this a pre IE loan word)
  • Εὐδώρη — Eudora — ‘Dressed in gifts’ from Indo-European ‘eu-‘, ‘dressed’, ‘do-‘, ‘to give’ and ‘rei-‘, ‘possession, thing’
  • Τύχη — Tyche — ‘chance’ from Indo-European ‘steu-‘, ‘To push, stick, knock, beat’ and ‘ksei-‘, ‘settle’.
  • Ἀμφιρὼ — Amphiro — ‘Ring’ from Indo-European ‘amphi’, ‘Around’ and ‘wer-3′, ‘To turn, bend’.
  • Ὠκυρόη — Ocyrhoe — ‘All seeing’ from Indo-European ‘okw-‘, ‘to see’ and ‘wer-3′, ‘To turn, bend’.
  • Στύξ — Styx — ‘hateful’ from Indo-European ‘steu-‘, ‘To push, stick, knock, beat’ and possibly ‘gwou-‘, ‘ox, bull, cow’

Note that every Oceanide seems to have an Indo-European name. Though the translation is not perfect, still the chance that the name came from Crete is slight. These goddesses are plainly Indo-European. It should also be noted that some of the goddesses have names that can be translated into Greek. But often the Indo-European translation makes more sense. The suggestion is that the name was formed before Greek was fully developed. The names may have been given 1400-1200 BCE while the names were written down around 700 BCE. So the changes may reflect the changes in the Greek language during the interval. The only loan word identified is Hebrew ‘haruz’.

Note: Phaedra and Pasiphae share “phae” while Pasithoe and Pasiphae share “pasi”. The question is whether ‘Pasiphae’ is Indo-European or not. If ‘Phae’ is related to ‘dhē(i)-‘. ‘to suck, suckle’ then the name ‘All nourisher’ might fit her possible role in Minoan religion. ‘Pasi-‘ seems to come from ‘pet- ‘to stretch out (esp. arms)’. Pasiphae may have been a goddess at one time and then have been demoted to a mortal in myth. This may have also happened to Helen.

A Nymph is a nature spirit according to the ancient Greeks. She is a minor goddess with a more restricted realm such as a tree or a spring. It is interesting to note that the word nymph has an Indo-European derivation related to the root sneubh-. The meanings related to this root involve marriage suggesting that Nymphs are rlated to marriagable women. In that Indo-European culture somehow marriageable women were connected to natural resources as their dowery. The different types of Nymphs also relate to the Indo-European Culture. There are two types of nymphs already mentioned, but others as well:

  • Water Nymphs
    • Oceaniades are nymphs of the Ocean
    • Nereides are nymphs of the Mediterranean Sea
    • Naiads are nymphs of fresh water
      • Potameids are nymphs of rivers
      • Creneids are nymphs of springs
      • Pegaeae are nymphs of fountains
      • Limnatides are nymphs of lakes
  • Hamadryades are nymphs of trees
    • Meliai are nymphs of the ash trees
    • Dryads are nymphs of the oak trees
    • Maliades are nymphs of fruit trees
  • Orestiads (Oreades) are nymphs of mountains
  • Alseides
  • Nepaeae
  • Leimoniads are nymphs of the meadow
  • Hydriads are nymphs of water
  • Acheloides
  • Anigrides

In the beginning there was only Heaven (Uranus) and Earth (Gaea). These
two bore the Titans:

  • Cronus (Cronos)– Κρόνος – Father time of the Greeks
  • Rhea — Ρέα — Mother of the gods, identified with Cybele
  • Coeus — Κοῖος — father of Leto a1nd Titan of intelligence.
  • Phoebe — Φοίβη — The bright one, mother of Leto
  • Oceanus (Oceanos) — Ωκεανός — Personification of the ocean
  • Tethys — Τηθύς — Wife of Oceanus, mother of the oceanids
  • Crius — Κρεῖος –
  • Hyperion — Υπερίων) — The father of the sun, the moon, and the dawn.
  • Iapetus (Ιαπετός) — father of Atlas
  • Thea, Theia — Θεία –
  • Themis — Θέμις — Personification of justice
  • Memnosyne — Μνημοσύνη — Personification of memory
  • Atlas — Άτλας — holds the sky on his shoulders
  • Leto — Λητώ — mother of Apollo and Artemis, ‘Summer’ from Indo-European ‘lēto-, ləto-‘, ‘daytime; summer, warm season’
  • Perses — Πέρσης — A possible interpretation would be ‘alloting rain’ from Indo-European ‘per-4′, ‘To grant, allot’ and “seu-4′, ‘To take liquid’
  • Asterie — Αστερια — ‘Stary’ from Indo-European ‘ster-3′, ‘star’ and ‘ei-‘, ‘to go’. She is about the oracles and prophecies of night, including prophetic dreams, the reading of the stars (astrology), and necromancy
  • Clymene — Κλυμένη — ‘Fame’ from Indo-European ‘kleu-‘, ‘To hear’ and ‘men-1′, ‘ To think’
  • Dione — Διόνη — ‘goddess unique’ From Indo-European ‘deiw’, ‘To shine’ and ‘oino-‘, ‘One, unique’
  • Epimetheus (Epithemeos) — Επιμηθεύς — after-thought
  • Prometheus (Prometheos) — Προμηθεύς — for-thought, the Savior of mankind

Uranus and Gaea also bore the Hecatoncheires, monsters with 100 hands
and 50 heads

  1. Briarus
  2. Cottus
  3. Gyes

Wind gods:

  • Aeolus – King of the Winds
  • Βορέαο — Boreas – North Wind from Indo-European ‘gwer-1′, ‘mountain’ and ‘ei-‘, ‘to go’
  • Zephyr – West Wind
  • Notus – South Wind
  • Eurus – East Wind

Lyssa – Lyssa’s name means “canine madness,” and she is the Greek underworld goddess who drove her dogs through the world proding the divine intoxication of the Maenads to destructive fury. She is the daughter of Nyx.

Eos– Ἠώς — goddess of the dawn. From Indo-European ‘au̯es-‘, ‘to shine’,Click here

Σελήνη — Selene — goddess of the Moon. Selene is not likely an Indo-European goddess as the Indo-European word for moon is ‘mēnōt’, ‘month; moon’. The Indo-European culture had a god of the Moon Menot who was male.

Harmonia – goddess of harmony Harmonia, daughter of Ares and Aphrodite. From Indo-European ‘1. ar-, thematic (a)re-, heavy-base arə-, rē-, and i-base (a)rī̆-, rēi-‘, ‘to fit, suit’ and ‘sme, smā̆’, ‘really, truly (emphatic particle)’ and ‘gu̯ē̆nā’, ‘queen, wife, woman’

Graiae – goddesses of old age

  • Pemphredo – Πεμφρηδώ –
  • Enyo — Ένυώ — goddess of war –
  • Deino

The family of Styx(oath)

  • Στὺξ — Styx — ‘hateful’ from Indo-European ‘steu-‘, ‘To push, stick, knock, beat’ and possibly ‘gwou-‘, ‘ox, bull, cow’
  • Πάλλαντι — Pallas — ‘brandish’ from Indo-European ‘pel-6′, ‘To thrust, strike, drive’ and ‘las-‘, ‘To be eager, wonton, or unruly’
  • Ζῆλον — Zelus — ‘rivalry’– from Indo-European ‘ya’, ‘To be aroused’ and ‘leu’, ‘praise’
  • Νίκην — Nike — ‘victory’ — possible from Indo-European ‘2. u̯eik-‘, ‘energy, force (in battle, victory, etc.)’
  • Cratos — ‘supremacy’ — from Indo-European ‘kreu-2′, ‘To push, strike’ and ‘teue-‘, ‘ To swell’
  • Bia — ‘force’ — from Indo-European ‘bhau-‘, ‘to strike’ and ‘ya-‘, ‘To be aroused

Εὐρῠφάεσσα — ‘Far-shining’, wife of Hyperion and mother of Helios from Indo-European ‘wer-8′, wide, broad’ and ‘bheigw’, ‘to shine’

The Pleiads: Their parents were Atlas and Pleione — Πληιονη — ‘wealth coming’ from Indo-European ‘pleu-‘, ‘to flow’ and ‘ei-‘, ‘to go’. These are as listed in Hesiod’s Catalog of Women

  • Τηϋγέτη — Taygete — ‘turn to song’ from Indo-European ‘teu’, ‘To pay attention to, turn to’ and ‘gei-2′, To sing’.
  • Ἠλέκτρη — Electra — ‘light play’from Indo-European: ‘wlek-‘, ‘light’ and ‘ter-3′, ‘To cross over, pass through, overcome’
  • Ἀλκυόνη — Alcyone — and ἀλκυών is a mythical bird often identified with the kingfisher.
  • Ἀστερόπη — Asterope — ‘star work’ from Indo-European ‘ster-3 and ‘op’, ‘ to work, to produce in abundance. (sometimes translated ‘twinkling star’0
  • Κελαινὼ — Celaeno — ‘concealer of fame’ from Indo-European ‘kel-4′, to conceal, save’ and ‘aiw-‘, ‘Vital force, life, long life, eternity
  • Μαιά — Maia — ‘good mother from Indo-European ‘ma’, ‘mother’ and ‘ya’, ‘To be aroused’ (Maia is the mother of Hermes)
  • Μερόπη — Merope — ‘mortal chooser’ from Indo-European ‘mer-2′, ‘mortal’ and ‘op-‘, ‘To choose’ (Merope hid her face in shame after marying a mortal.)

Personifications:

  • Aether — Atmosphere
  • Eudaimonia — (Εὐδαιμονία) — Goddess of Happiness from Florence 81948 (Vase).
  • Eutychia (Εὐτύχια) — Goddess of Good Fortune, the attendant to Nemesis.
  • Eirene (Ειρήνη) — Peace.
  • Eleos or Eleus (Ελεος) — The goddess of compassion.
  • Klymene (Κλυμένης) — Goddess of fame, attendant of Hera.
  • Hemera — day
  • Hypnos – sleep
  • Momus – blame
  • Oneiroi – dreams
  • Oizys (Οιξυς)- the goddess of Distress, also a daughter of Nyx.(Not in Liddell and Scott)
  • Peitho (Πειθώ) – the goddess of persuasion, a frequent attendant of Aphrodite.
  • Ponos – toil
  • Psyche (Ψυχή) – goddess of the soul.
  • Apate – deception
  • Philotes – friendship
  • Geras – age
  • Hypeborian Maidens, daughters of Boreas:
    • Ἑκαέργ Hecaerge, ‘hitting at a distance ‘ and related to ‘akas’, ‘far off’. Liddel and Scott suggest a connection to ‘ekoon’, ‘At will’. But Indo-European ‘eik-‘, ‘to be master of a process’ and ‘areq- ‘to guard, protect, lock’ also makes sense.’
    • Upis
  • Hygieia – the goddess of mental and physical health
  • Paidia — the goddess of childish play from Florence 81948 (Vase)
  • Pannychis — the goddess of night long vigil from Florence 81948 (Vase)
  • Pandaisia — the goddess of the complete banquet from Florence 81948 (Vase)
  • Chrysothemis — the goddess of the golden rule Florence 81948 (Vase)
  • Eurynoe — the goddess of making a space for dancing Florence 81948 (Vase)
  • Eudaimonia — the goddess of true happiness Florence 81948 (Vase)

Place Names

  • Στροφάδες — Strophades (“Turnings” according to Hesiod) — ‘good turning’ from Indo-European ‘strebh’, ‘To wind turn’ and ‘bhad-‘, ‘good’.
  • Πλωταὶ – Plotae(‘Floating” islands according to Hesiod) — ‘floating’ from Indo-European ‘pleu-‘, ‘to flow’ and ‘ta’, ‘melt, dissolve’
  • Σικελικω — Sicilian — ‘?’ from Indo-European ‘seikw-‘, ‘to flow’ and ‘lik-‘, ‘body, form; like, same’.
  • Σαλαμῖνος — Salamis — ‘black bird’ from Indo-European ‘sal-2′, ‘dirty gray’ and ‘ames-‘, ‘blackbird’
  • Τροιζῆνα — Troizen — ‘The neighborhood of Troy’ from Greek but maybe ‘thrush area’ from Indo-European ‘trozdos-‘, ‘thrush’ and ‘sen-2′, ‘apart, separated’
  • Ἐπίδαυρον — Epidaurus — maybe ‘before the tears’ From Indo-European ‘epi-‘, ‘near, at, against’ and ‘dakru-‘, tear’.
  • Αἴγιναν — Aegina — ‘goat place’ from Indo-European ‘aig’, ‘goat’ and ‘ei’, ‘to go’
  • Μάσητα — Mases — ‘good place’ from Indo-European ‘ma-‘, ‘good’ and ‘sta-‘, ‘to stand’
  • Μέγαρα — Megara — maybe ‘great halls’ from Indo-European ‘meg’, ‘great’ and ‘ar-‘, ‘to fit together’.
  • Κόρινθον — Corinth — Believed to be a loan word from the Minoan Culture because of the ‘inth’ part. The ‘Cor’ part may relate to the Indo-European ‘Koro’, ‘War’
  • Ὀξύρρυγχος — Oxyrhynchus — ‘sharp nosed fish’ from Indo-European ak̑- ‘sharp, angular; stone'; from (Greek ‘ῥίς’, ‘nose’), and ‘g̑hðū-‘, ‘fish’. One has to wonder about the relation between ‘ῥίς’, ‘nose’ and ‘u̯eren-‘, ‘lamb, ram, sheep’ in this context.

Selected Unicode Greek Alphabet: Α Ἄ α ὰ ά ἄ Β β Ί γ Δ δ Ε ε έ ἐ ἔ Ζ ζ Ή η ὴ ή ἣ ἡ ῆ ἦ ἥ Θ θ Ἱ Ἰ ι ί ῖ Κ κ Λ λ Μ μ Ν ν Ξ ξ Ο ο ὸ ό Π π Ρ ρ Σ ς σ Τ τ Ξ ξ υ ὐ ύ ϋ ὗ ὕ ῦ Φ φ Χ χ Ψ ψ Ω Ὠ ω ῶ ώ (not complete)


Question and Answers

Question: Did Lyssa and Oizys from Nyx have children? How do you pronounce Lyssa and Oizys?

Answer: Lyssa is the goddess of madness and Oizys is the goddess of Distress. I have little infomation on their pronunciation except to say that ‘oi’ is often pronounced ‘wa’. Both of these are literal personifications with the names of the godesses the same as words of Greek. Lyssa is the madness of Bacchae. I could not find any offspring.

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Including Amazons, Goddesses, Nymphs, and Archaic Females from Mycenaen and Minoan Cultures