Persephone, the goddess of Spring

Persephone (Περσεφονη )is daughter of the goddess Demeter and the god Zeus. She is also

maiden of the spring season of the year. She was forced to be the consort of the
Lord of the Underworld and spent her time in the underworld as the only goddess
who ever died and lived in the underworld. As it is she dies in the Fall and is
reborn in the Spring of every year. This is the the same as

This story is told by Hesiod in the “Hymn to Demeter” which describes the
seizure of Persephone by Hades, the grief of Demeter, her stay at Eleusis, and
her vengeance on gods and men by causing famine. Because of the famine Zeus was
forced to bring Persephone back from the lower world; but the goddess, by the
contriving of Hades, still remained partly a deity of the lower world. He gave
her sweet food in the form of pomegranate seeds to eat. In memory of her sorrows
Demeter established the Eleusinian mysteries (which, however, were purely
agrarian in origin).

Hesiod Theogony line 912 states, “Also he(Zeus) came to the bed of all-nourishing Demeter, and she bore white-armed Persephone whom Aidoneus carried off from her mother; but wise Zeus gave her to him. ” But Homer in the Odyssey There is no mention of this. Instead he refers to “the house of Hades and dread Persephone”. Though the name of Hades is on the house the god Hades takes no action. Instead it is Persephone that acts as at 11.634, “and pale fear seized me, lest [635] august Persephone might send forth upon me from out the house of Hades the head of the Gorgon, that awful monster.” In the context of Demeter Persephone is seen as a maiden second to her mother. In Hades she seems to be the one in control.

There are two myths accociated with Persephone and the seasons, the one involving her rape, and another one about Adonis found in Apollodorus, Library 3.14.4 “Ten months afterwards the tree burst and Adonis, as he is called, was born, whom for the sake of his beauty, while he was still an infant, Aphrodite hid in a chest unknown to the gods and entrusted to Persephone. But when Persephone beheld him, she would not give him back. The case being tried before Zeus, the year was divided into three parts, and the god ordained that Adonis should stay by himself for one part of the year, with Persephone for one part, and with Aphrodite for the remainder.” Both these myths relate Persephone to the cycles of the seasons but neither indicate any power of Persephone over the process of the Spring season. But the Athenian Festival cycle has festivals to Dionysus in the Spring and the festivals for Demeter and Persephone, Eleusina and Thesmophoria in the fall. The death and rebirth concepts associated with Spring seem more related to Dionysus while Persephone is just associated with death as witnessed in the fall of the year.

The relation bewteen the ancient Greek religion and the Minoan relagion is one of speculation. The war of the gods with Zeus against the Titans seems more related to a Minoan related religion taking over the old Indo-European one. The rape of Persephone seems more likely a chapter in this story than a physical act. Persephone seems an unlikely rape victim. More likely is the interpretation of a strong Minoan cult with Persephone as the main goddess being ana appealing concept to the Greeks which they adopted as their own.

The derivation of the word “Persephone” is in doubt. But it still may be an Indo-European word. The Indo-European word “pri-” means to love. This is the root for Frigg, the old norse Goddess of love. Freya and Friday both come from this Goddess. Since Persephone is tied up with love she may be an old Indo-European love goddess. “sephone” might be better analysed as σεφθείς which is an older variation of awe or respect for the devine. A translation of “Persephone” as “divine love” seems more likely than “destructive-slayer”. The ancient Greek Olympians includes 3 pairs of goddesses and their consorts: Zeus and Hera, Poseidon and Demeter, Hades and Persephone. These pairings seem consistent with the nature of the Indo-Europeans deities and their religion.

It is also possible that the three goddesses, Hera, Demeter, and Persephone come from the Minoan Religion. Zeus is the only deity with a good Indo-European pedigree.

Images of Persephone

Recent pictures of Persephone:

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Persephone and Her Impact on Greek Art and Culture

Questions and Answers

Question: How many pomegranate seeds did Persephone eat?

Answer: She only had to eat one.

Question: Persephone ever have any children?

Answer: I do not find any indication of this. Persephone is the eternal maid
and this may be why she bears no children.

Question: Are there any paintings?

Answer: No paintings have survived from ancient Greece. Some images from
ceramics are listed earlier on this page. Additional images are available at: <a
href=”http://web.uvic.ca/grs/bowman/myth/gods/persephone_i.html”>Click here

Question: Did persophone actualy die in autumn, or did she merely enter the
underworld (Or is that considerd to be death)?

Answer: She dies and enters the underworld to be reborn as a maiden in the
spring.

Question: does persephone grow to love hades eventually?

Answer: This is a tough question. Can the raped ever come to love the rapist?
This is particularly difficult because in this case the rape causes the death of
the goddess. There was something strange and awesome about her forever after.

Question: but if Persephone never ever love Hades… why did she turned
Hades’ concubine Minthe, into a plant?

Answer: Hades conquered Persephone and made her his wife through rape and
deception. This behavior does not make for a happy marriage. The jealousy of
Hera and Persephone may be a response to this type of mistreatment. She may not
have been mad at Hades for denying her his love, but rather she wanted to get
back at him for the pain he caused her in the past.

Question: was persephone in love with Adonis? did Hades have any reaction
about that dispute?

Answer: Aphrodite was in love with Adonis.

Question: okay, so aphrodite loved adonis… but, persephone did so too
right? if not, why did she refused to return adonis to aphrodite?

Answer: Robert Graves indicates that the classical poets missinterpreted the
pictures of Aphrodite sitting with Adonis under a myrtle tree. She was not
courting him but promising him resurrection. The myrtle was the token of
resurrection.

Question: persephone love adonis. yes or no?

Answer: Though Adonis is mentioned by Hesiod, the story of Persephone and
Adonis seems most plain in Apollodorus of Athens so it may really be a Roman
tale. Persephone and Adonis do have a common nature, but Adonis came to the
Greeks from the near east and he came late. Persephone may not have loved Adonis
during the periods of ancient Greece.

Comment:

Hello.  I found your article (above) during a search on Persephone...as you
invited comment, I thought I would offer the following information regarding
your Q&A section.

>Question: does persephone grow to love hades eventually?
>
>Answer: This is a tough question. Can the raped ever come to love the
rapist? >This is particularly difficult because in this case the rape causes
the death of >the goddess. There was something strange and awesome about
her forever >after.

The so-called "rape" of Persephone is a fabrication.  The original version--
and for this you must go back further than Ovid, and some would say further
than Homer, to the Orphics-- uses a word that means "taken," rather than
"raped."  It is a term used in ancient Greek marriage ceremonies, whereby
the groom rides by chariot to his bride's childhood home and carries her
from there to his own home.  Hades was not kidnapping Persephone, but
marrying her.  In the original version of the mythology, she is not an
unwilling participant.  The rape-theory came into being with the rise of
patriarchy, and the defiling of the myths perpetrated by the Romans.

>Question: but if Persephone never ever love Hades... why did she turned
>Hades' concubine Minthe, into a plant?
>
>Answer: Hades conquered Persephone and made her his wife through rape
>and deception. This behavior does not make for a happy marriage. The
>jealousy of Hera and Persephone may be a response to this type of 
>mistreatment. She may not have been mad at Hades for denying her his love, 
>but rather she wanted to get back at him for the pain he caused her in the
>past.

Again, Minthe is a Roman invention.  Hades is, in fact, the ONLY Greek god
who remains faithful to his wife.  Further, it has been argued that Adonis
is a mistranslation of one of Hades' own names--"Aidoneus".  Again, go back
far enough in the myths, and Hades and Persephone are the only Greek deities
who seem to have a happy marriage.   It's kind of odd that theirs has thus
become the most corrupted. :/

Hope this helps answer the "how can she love him if he raped her" question--
because he never raped her. :)

Response: Thank you for your comments. You will need to reconcile yourself to
the following from Hesiod: (ll. 54-58) “Queenly Demeter, bringer of seasons and
giver of good gifts, what god of heaven or what mortal man has rapt away
Persephone and pierced with sorrow your dear heart? For I heard her voice, yet
saw not with my eyes who it was. But I tell you truly and shortly all I know.”

(ll. 59-73) “”So, then, said Hecate. And the daughter of rich- haired Rhea
answered her not, but sped swiftly with her, holding flaming torches in her
hands. So they came to Helios, who is watchman of both gods and men, and stood
in front of his horses: and the bright goddess enquired of him: `Helios, do you
at least regard me, goddess as I am, if ever by word or deed of mine I have
cheered your heart and spirit. Through the fruitless air I heard the thrilling
cry of my daughter whom I bare, sweet scion of my body and lovely in form, as of
one seized violently; though with my eyes I saw nothing. But you — for with
your beams you look down from the bright upper air Over all the earth and sea —
tell me truly of my dear child, if you have seen her anywhere, what god or
mortal man has violently seized her against her will and mine, and so made off.”

(ll. 74-87) “So said she. And the Son of Hyperion answered her: ‘Queen
Demeter, daughter of rich-haired Rhea, I will tell you the truth; for I greatly
reverence and pity you in your grief for your trim-ankled daughter. None other
of the deathless gods is to blame, but only cloud-gathering Zeus who gave her to
Hades, her father’s brother, to be called his buxom wife. And Hades seized her
and took her loudly crying in his chariot down to his realm of mist and gloom.
Yet, goddess, cease your loud lament and keep not vain anger unrelentingly:
Aidoneus, the Ruler of Many, is no unfitting husband among the deathless gods
for your child, being your own brother and born of the same stock: also, for
honour, he has that third share which he received when division was made at the
first, and is appointed lord of those among whom he dwells.'”

Question: what were the names of her brothers and sisters?

Answer: She had no full brothers and sisters but she had several
half-brothers: Plutus, Philomelus, and Parius.

Actually, I won’t need to reconcile myself to anything. As I mentioned in my
previous note, if you go back to the Orphic hymns, and original Greek, you’ll
find the term that denotes a marriage ritual rather than a rape. Hesiod was
later even than Homer, while the Orphic hymns have been dated as far back as
between 1840 and 1385 BC.

Hopefully the hymns that you are referring to are at:

http://www.globaltown.com/shawn/orphic.html (but this link to the translations of the Orphic hymns by Shawn Eyer is broken, 11-20-2009)

Thank you so much for the link! I had not yet seen those particular
translations of the Orphics, but they are quite poetic and beautiful. I
appreciate the gift. :)

Your clarification is quite helpful.

Thank you. I am glad you find it so.

You do seem to suggest that men needed the story to refer to rape while women
> did not.

Oh, goodness, not at all! I apologize profusely if that is how my emails
sounded. I love men. None of the men I know would feel that way, and it would be
a severe disservice to them and myself if *I* felt that way. I don’t think that
Greek men felt a rape was required in the story either; I simply think that the
writers who– shall we say, embellished– or mistranslated the original myth
were writing from a different cultural perspective. Everything written is, of
neccessity, a product of its time. I just think that over the ages, the climate
of the world changed so that the story made more dramatic sense to later readers
and poets if it did include the rape…perhaps a sad commentary on how the
culture was changing? Perhaps a response to the upgrowth of Rome? I can’t say.
But it does seem that traveling the path from the Orphics to Ovid, the myths
become darker and bleaker. I don’t believe the “original” Zeus ever tied Hera by
her wrists, chained anvils to her ankles to weight her, and whipped her, for
instance. Save those barbarities for Ovid. :) No, I don’t think the addition of
the rape had anything to do with the gender of the writers– in fact, there are
many women today who point to the rape version of the myth as an example of
female victims overcoming adversity. I would have a problem deliberately placing
myself in the role of victim in order to identify with that, so I don’t
understand why they would relish the thought; but it does show me that seeing
the story as a rape has nothing to do with the gender of the reader or writer. I
apologize again if my emails sounded that way. It certainly wasn’t my intent.

Again, thank you for reading my notes. I really appreciate it, and your
thoughtful answers!

Question: What color is Persephone’s hair?

Answer: All the ancient images I have reviewed show it black.

Question: Are there any other stories about Persephone other than when Hades
abducted her?

Answer:

  • She is carried off by Hades
  • She was wooed by Pirithous
  • She sent back Alcestis from Hades
  • She interceded for Menoetes
  • She disputed with Aphrodite for Adonis

Question: What were Persephone’s symbols?

Answer: Symbols of Persephone included the pomegranate and mint.

Question: What were Persephone’s responsibilities?

Answer: Persephone was goddess of the changing seasons and related processes
such as the cycles of life and death. Her responsibility is that these things
happen according to expectations and decisions of the other deities.

Question: Who are her brothers?

Answer: Demeter had only one child Persephone.

Question: why was she givin this name?

Answer: Probably because it means death-bringing and it relates to her
position as Queen of the underworld.

Question: Doesn’t Persephone only live in the underworld only in the winter?

Answer: This is true if you understand living in the underworld means dying
and winter is the cold time of the year when plants die back.

Question: Who were her enemies?

Answer: Goddesses have no enemies.

Question: couldn’t persephone just shape-shift to get away from Hades

Answer: Shape-shifting usually works on mortals, but not on other deities.
Also it is not clear that Persephone wanted to escape Hades. Though Hades used
deception to keep Persephone, it may only have been Demeter who was deceived.
Persephone and Hades are a devoted couple.

Question: what happens while Persephone was stuck down with Hades

Answer: Demeter becomes unhappy with the result the a cold, dry season comes
to the countryside.

Question: have u ever wanted to kill or overthrow your father?Explain

Answer: When your father is Zeus a desire to overthrow your father is a
desire to change the basic nature of the world. Men change things in the world,
but they do not change its basic nature. Though men might think there are better
possibilities for the world, the understanding of goddesses is better. Because
they see all time at once they have a better notion of why things happen and
where things are going. But they also have more power and can change the basic
nature of things. So Persephone has little reason to kill or ovethrow her
father.

Question: Does she have any allies? Why are they on her side?

Answer: All the gods and goddesses are allies by the will of Zeus. Hecate
specifically assists Persephone.

Question: Does she have ny weaknesses? Bad habits, things you cant resist?

Answer: When you are in Hades realm you are dead and an empty spirit. You
long for life, especially what is beautiful in life.

Question: Does she possess and special items? and what do they do? Describe
any prophecies involvong you.

Question: Mint and Pomegranate are sacred to her.

Answer: The Pomegranate is part of her myth.

Question: has she had any journies? can u describe one of them?

Answer: In the Spring she rises from Hades to the Earth. In the Fall she
descends to Hades again.

Question: why is hades so, vigered and moody lonely??

Answer: In Hesiod is this quote: “These were destroyed by their own hands and
passed to the dank house of chill Hades, and left no name: terrible though they
were, black Death seized them, and they left the bright light of the sun.”

Question: QUESTION: I HAVE READ THAT AN ORIGINAL VERSION OF PERSEPONE HAD HER
PICKING FLOWERS AND AS SHE LOOKED UP SHE SAW A DARK FOREST WITH DEAD SOULS IN
IT. THEY ASKED HER TO STAY WITH THEM. SHE THEN WENT T HER MOTHER AND DEMETER
DECLARED THAT SHE ONLY HAD TIME FOR THE LIVING. SO IT WAS PERSEPHONE’S DECISION
TO ENTER THE REALM OF THE DEAD TO BRING LIGHT AND REGENERATION TO THEM. WHERE IS
THIS STORY FROM.

Answer: Lost Goddesses of Early Greece: A Collection of Pre-Hellenic Myths:
With a New Preface Author: Spretnak, Charlene Format: Paperback ISBN: 0807013439
Pages: 132 Publish Date: 8/1/1992 Publisher: Beacon Press

Question: what’s so beautiful about a pomegranate that made Persephone eat
it?

Answer: In those days the Pomegranate was one of the sweetest and most
desirable fruits available. Today it does not seem as sweet as some others.

Question: i love persephone. did hades make her happy or was he cruel and
sadistic even to her?

Answer: Hades and Persephone are the most devoted of the divine couples.

Question: Did Persephone know/fortell that Terisias would help Oddyseus, and
is this (wanting Oddysseus to respect the authority of the gods) her motive for
allowing Terrisias to keep understanding in the Underworld?

Answer: Persephone can fortell as all goddesses can. Your concern is for the
following quote: ” You must go to the house of Hades and of dread Proserpine to
consult the ghost of the blind Theban prophet Teiresias, whose reason is still
unshaken. To him alone has Proserpine left his understanding even in death, but
the other ghosts flit about aimlessly.’ Odyssey, Book X. But notice that it is
Circe who commands him. What is meant by reason here must be somewhat more than
the words convey. Teiresias has special powers and these have been preserved. It
is not clear why. But it is Circe’s motivation that should be at issue here.
Circe is using her powers as a goddess to find Odysseus a way to continue his
journey.

Question: What hymn(s) or other works specifically show Persephone’s wisdom
and/or her just nature?

Answer: This, from Oedipus:

Heaven's justice never smites
Him who ill with ill requites.
But if guile with guile contend,
Bane, not blessing, is the end.

Question: For what purpose did Persephone help Heracles capture Cerberus in
chains?

Answer: Persephone simply allowed Herakles to display Cerberus to mortals.
The power of the gods was proved in this way. Heracles captured Cerberus without
weapons through the grace of Hades, and he had to bring him back to Hades
anyway. This may simply have been a demonstration of divine power.

Question: Isnt Persephone considered the goddess of the underworld? And if
so, why is Hecate also?

Answer: Hecate is Persephone’s assistant.

Question: you said persephone died when she enters the underworld right? does
that means she left a corpse behind on earth or something like that?

Answer: It seems possible, but the myths treat her as being entirely gone.

Question: Did Hades truly love Minthe?

Answer: Some claim Hades was faithful. But the fact that the mint plant
grew suggests deep respect by Hades. The nature of this respect is not clear.

Question: hades is actually older than zeus right? why then did he get a worse place to conquer?

Answer: The relevant quote from Hesiod (Theogony) is: “But Rhea was subject in love to Cronos and bore splendid children, Hestia,1 Demeter, and gold-shod Hera [455] and strong Hades, pitiless in heart, who dwells under the earth, and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker, and wise Zeus, father of gods and men, by whose thunder the wide earth is shaken. These great Cronos swallowed as each [460] came forth from the womb to his mother’s knees with this intent, that no other of the proud sons of Heaven should hold the kingly office amongst the deathless gods. For he learned from Earth and starry Heaven that he was destined to be overcome by his own son, [465] strong though he was, through the contriving of great Zeus.”

As each of the children of Cronos were born, except Zeus, they were
swallowed. It was Zeus who overthrew his father, so it seems that he should
get the higher status position. When he overthrew his father he was alone
and his siblings were swallowed. Their status depends upon their second
birth, when Cronos regurtated them. The order: Zeus first as the conquerer,
Poseidon, Hades, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia. By their symbols: air, sea,
land, heaven, crops, fire.

Question: why don’t hades and persephone live in the elysian field? it is part of the underworld right?

Answer: Maybe they do. No one knows where the castle of Hades is.

Question: I heard that Hades is barred form Olympus and banquets… is it true?if so was persephone too?

Answer: Of the gods and goddesses only Persephone can freely cross the line
between the land of the living and the land of the dead.

Question: isn’t the mint plant a symbol of persephone? maybe that’s the reason why it grew in the underworld?

Answer: The mint plant is sacred to Persephone.

Question: what is her Greek name?

Answer: Persephone. Proserpina was her Roman name.

Question:What was Persephones character and personality like?

Answer: She was patient and sympathetic but also unrelenting.

Question: how long does persephone stay with hades in the underworld

Answer: Some stories say half the year, while others say a third.
This corresponds to winter among non-tropical climates. Obviously this
varies with the latitude.

Question: is hades allowed to enter olympus?

Answer: No. Only Persephone can cross the line between life and death.

Question: what date did persephone come into existence?

Answer: All the Greek goddesses came into existence before human history.

Question: you mean hades has never entered olmpus? not even during special occasions?

Answer: As far as I know.

Question: you said only persephone can cross the line between life and death… but Hades abducted persephone on earth… which means he crossed the boundary of death and enter the realm of the living ? how do you explain that?

Answer: When Persephone was attracted to the narcissus flower she came to
a spot on the boundary between life and death. Hades was then able to capture
her without crossing the boundary.

Question: How has Persephone had and impact on human life today in our culture?

Answer: Sam Webster says: “Zeus’s philandering, the Bribing of Paris, the Rape of Persephone did not attract me. I prefer my gods as ideals. But this raises the question as the relevance of Greek gods for twentieth century Americans. Jean Shinoda Bolen disabused me of my aversion by pointing out in her Goddesses in Everywoman and Gods in Everyman books that the twisted qualities of the Olympian deities are the same twisted qualities of our own culture. Her books provide a wonderful guided tour of the Western psyche by means of the these gods showing that they are still alive and effective in our minds. My response is to study these forms for their virtues and for their pathologies to better understand my culture and myself.” Reference

Question: Did Persephone ever have children of her own bearing?

Answer: No. But why would the goddess of death need children?

Question: who was the author of the myth about persephone

Answer: Ancient Greek myths have no author. They were not made-up fictions.
The ancient Greeks believed they were true stories about the gods and
goddesses. Until they were written down by about 550 BCE they were passed
along by an oral tradition.

Question: in one of persephones pictures, it showed that she had wings….is this true?

Answer: Goddesses were often pictured with wings to symbolize the fact that
they had the ability to move through the air. They did not need wings to do
this. But they had the ability to change into any shape and they could have
appeared with wings.

Question: is there a specific color that persephone wears?

Answer: No. Spring includes many bright colors.

Question: what powers does persephone have

Answer:
Persephone had the same powers as the other goddesses: the ability
to foretell the future, move through the air, and change her appearance. She
could also move into Hades and out again, she could determine the fate
Her power is to make the seeds and plants grow and flowers bloom
in the spring. Unfortunately she must die in the fall and take the plants
with her to Hades.
Her powers related mainly to the dead where she had great influence over them.
Any goddess had the power to know all a life contained so she could easily
reward or punish the dead according to the merit of their life. All Greek
souls went to Hades and it was up to Hades and Persephone to deal with them
as was appropriate.

Question: So was Persephone raped or just taken?

Answer: There was a time in pre-history when men had to steal their wives
away from their families. The best way to do this was to find a woman that
was interested in being stolen by you. If you got her cooperation she was
easy to steal. A little more difficult was the not unwilling woman but you
had the cooperation of one of her relatives who could help you. The relative
would help you catch the woman in a vulnurable situation so so you could
get away with the woman. You then had the challenge of convincing this woman
that you were really worthy. This is what Zeus did for Hades. The most
difficult situation involved the unwilling woman. You had to take her by force
have sex with her by force, and marry her by force. She probably would
resent you and hate you. She might try to escape. She might even try to
hurt you or the children you produced. Zeus raped a number of women in this
way and he solved the problem of the woman’s resentment by dumping her
on someone else, and providing her with a baby who would turn into a hero.
These are not options available to an ordinary rapist.

Question: is persephone in 3 myths?

Answer: Persephone has at least 23 references in the works of ancient
authors. I am not sure it is useful to classify her by myth.

Question: What was persephome roman name

Answer: Proserpina.

Question: Did Persephone have any temples?

Answer:

  • Aegina, Temple of Aphaia
  • Eleusis, Temple in the Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore
  • Priene, Sanctuary of Demeter and Kore

Question: Where was she born?

Answer: One myth has her born in Arcadia but under a different name.

Question: after Persephone ate the pomegranate seeds she had to spend time
in the underworld, on land and as a maiden for Zeus. Why did she have to be a
maiden for Zeus???

Answer: Persephone was the daughter of Zeus and since she was a maiden
she was the maiden of Zeus.

Question: how were the togas that she wore wrapped about her? do you have a
diagram, I need to wrap myself in a toga and I do not know how.

Answer: Ancient Greek ladies did not wear togas and they did not wrap
anything around them. Instructions for making a peplos are to be found
at click here

Question: Has the stry of Persephon been seen in our modern world? ex: movies, literature, songs, etc…

Answer: I have not found any but there are many references.

Question: What flower is associated with Persephone?

Answer: “we were playing and gathering sweet flowers in our hands,
soft crocuses mingled with
irises and hyacinths, and rose-blooms and lilies, marvellous to
see, and the narcissus which the wide earth caused to grow yellow
as a crocus. ” (ll. 405-433) Hesiod, TO DEMETER” Of these the narcissus
is the most important.

Question: What was the myth’s origin

Answer: The myth seems uniquely Greek. The oldest versions which are
Orphic omit the rape of Persephone. Hesiod is the oldest to mention the
rape of Persephone by Hades. Homer fails to mention the rape or the fact that
Persephone is the daughter of Demeter.

Question: flower sacred to persephone

Answer: All flowers are sacred to Persephone, but the narcissus is
especially so.

Question: What is Persephone emblem

Answer: A narcissus.

Question: has persephone got any powers and if so what are they

Answer: All goddesses have powers, some are general, and some are specific
to their realm. General powers include the ability to change shape,
prophesy, and fly through the air. Pesephone’s realm is death. She sets
rules for death and can bend the rules in response to prayers. She can
even reverse death if it is sultable. She can also change the path of a
dead soul’s progress so as to punish it or reward it for the life lead.

Question: Where did persephone live?

Answer: She spends the winter part of the year in the palace of Hades
under the earth with her husband Hades. She spends the summer part of the year
in the kindom of Zeus above the earth in the palace of Zeus with her mother
Demeter..

Question: Why did she get raped?

Answer: It was the custom in prehistoric times for a man to get a wife he
would have to seize a girl and carry her off. Next he would have to defend
himself against her relatives. This was to prove that he was powerful and
worthy. If he was not he would end up dead. Often men had to fight each
other for the same reason. But if a man was rich he could just buy a wife.

Question: Does Persephone have any strengths,and if so, what are they?

Answer: Persephone is a goddess and all goddesses are strong, so strong
that they should be respected or feared. The subject of concern and
reverence is their realm. Persephone is the goddess of death and ressurection. It is she that brings about the change of the
seasons, but she is also responsible for souls after death. Some she entertains in Elysium while others she tortures. As goddess
of death she produces the rules of death, maintains these rules, and hears prayers and petitions about death. She has the
responsibility of correcting any injustices that might occur.

Question: Where was she born? Does she have any superhuman abilities or talents? What are her flaws? did anyone influence her in her life to do things?

Answer: As a goddess Persephone would have been born on the Earth since all Greek deities were born on the Earth. But where on the earth she was born is not clear. As a goddess Persephone has many superhuman powers including the ability to fly through the air, change her shape and forcast the future. The powers of a goddess are discussed at: Click Here. Persephone has one power that other goddesses do not. She has the ability to visit and leave Hades, the place of the dead. Most goddesses are immortal and can never visit Hades. So Persephone is both a mortal goddess and an immortal goddess. Goddesses have realms and this defines them. Her flaws are not really flaws but aspects of her nature. She is the goddess of death and the underworld. Being associated so much with death might, by some, be considered a fault. but she was able to return mortals to life if she chose. As the daughter of Zeus she is definitely part of his devine plan. Life and death are part of his devine plan. She became the goddess of death because death needed to be a part of the world of Zeus. The story is that she was raped by Hades. But no goddesses wanted to have the realm of death. So Hades had to rape someone to get a bride. In those days rape meant carry off. Persephone did not actually become goddess of the underworld until she was carried off by Hades. So you can say that Hades influenced her. Some say Persephone was the daughter of Demeter and by her she became the goddess of Spring. She also had a relation to Aphrodite. In spite of her association with death she was a beautiful goddess and attracted lovers including Peirithous and Adonis. In the end she possessed all lovers when they died.

Question: I need something clarified: I have heard the term “raped” used in greek mythology to simply mean “taken”. So when you say that Persephone was raped by Hades, does it mean taken, or the other definition, or could it mean either, depending on the version? And how strong is the evidence that she wasn’t raped, as in ravished, by Hades? Thank you!

Answer: Hades took Persephone as his wife without her consent or the consent of her mother but with the consent of her father. Whether she was ravished is not clear. Once Hades possessed Pesephone she may have given in to her father’s wishes and consented to a sexual relation. There is evidence for this because the marriage of Persephone and Hades was a very stable one. But there were no children.

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Including Amazons, Goddesses, Nymphs, and Archaic Females from Mycenaen and Minoan Cultures