The Role of Women in Ancient Greek Art,A Discussion by Frederick John Kluth of Kent, Ohio

Question: Were the Maenads really crazy?

Answer: Maenads might be considered to be rebelious women but the men thought
they were crazy. They committed rebellious acts and were never punished.

The Furies were just the opposite of rebellious women. They fought for
law and order and punished criminals. They hounded many criminals to their

Question: do you have myths on any gods or goddesses?

Answer: One man’s myth is another man’s religion. What I have are stories
from the ancient Greeks. Click on the Menu Directory then click on an item.

Question: where do get anciant greek pictures from

Answer: Click in the links to see the pictures.

Question: could women vote in democratic athens

Answer: No! Politics.

Question: In Oresteia, the character female Clytaemenstra exhibits strong
male qualities. What kind of message do you think Aesychlus was trying to send

Answer: Women are capable of wielding power.

Question: Hair styles

Answer: Hair

Question: Do you have any picturs on the woman bdoing these arts

Answer: Yes. But what arts?

Question: I am looking for information on a statue called “Woman in the Market”, can you help?

Answer: information is available at:

Click here

Question: Can i get information on the Goddess of Pleasur ( Goddess Bass)?

Answer: Bes is the Egyptian god of Love and marriage. Voluptas is the Roman
goddess of sensual pleasure.

Question: Where can I find a good picture of Aphrodite?

Answer: Aphrodite

Question: erotic

Answer: The ancient Greeks had a different ideas of the morality of the
erotic than we do. Nudity of men was more accepted then. Men were also able
to form liasons with the hetaera that were more public.

Question: oral

Answer: in addition to using their mouths for sex, hetaera could also use
them for song. And most amazingly they could use them for rhetoric. The
ancient Greek men enjoyed a good argument even from the hetaera.

Question: prostition

Answer: Ancient Greece had a special class of women called hetaera who were
available for sex and other forms of entertainment. Though some consider them
prostitutes, they did not consider themselves in this way. They related to
friends who gave them gifts. Prostitutes were usually women slaves who were
hired out just for sex.

Question: did the men help the women

Answer: Yes they did, but in the Greek society roles were carefully divided
by gender so usually men helped men and women helped women. But life is very
difficult if a man does not get along with his wife, so most husbands helped
their wives.

Question: Who is Echonia?

Answer: A female mentioned in a song called “A Dying Wish” by Anethma.

Question: describe the social climate of ancient greece

Answer: For the citizens and their wives this was one of the highest
cultures ever achieved. It was full of all kinds of art and activity. The
ancient Greeks were very competitive and excelled to a high degree. Their
homes were fairly simple because they shared a very rich public life with lots
of social interaction. They liked to discuss and argue and they considered many new ideas in the process. They were also very literate. They were acutely aware of who was part of their culture and who was a foreigner, and they were quick to condemn foreign culture as inferior.
Slaves had to work pretty hard to sustain all this culture, but some probably
benefited in the process.

Question: why didnt women & men have the same responsibilities ?

Answer: In those days being pregnant and giving birth was a very difficult
and dangerous business. The Greek men gave their wives the opportunity to
concentrate on this without interferance. Their isolation allowed them to
thrive in the company of supportive women. The isolation of women reduced the
chances of rape and other forms of male harasment. The myths of ancient Greece
are full of rapes and other indignities to women which their seclusion

Question: how where they involved with Astronomy

Answer: The ancient Greeks used mathematics and geometry to study the
planets and stars. They made great progress in this area. In the 5th
century BCE Aglaonice was regarded as a sorceress because she was able to
predict eclipses of the sun and moon by means of the lunar cycles discovered
by Chaldean astronomers. Her main interest was astrology, but she had to
develop an interest in scientific astronomy to support this. She referred to
her scientific skills as “her will”.

Question: Who was the first artist known for capturing the beauty of nude women?

Answer: Praxiteles.

Question: what are the greek terms for the mail and female archaic sculpture?

Answer: You are probaly refering to the words “kouros” and “kore”.

Question: how were women valued in Greek sociey?

Answer: First by their ability to bear noble healthy children, then by
their ability to have sex, and finally by their ability to manage a house
and cook and clean.

Question: why is bens hair so big

Answer: Hair has always been important, even during ancient Greek times.


Answer: Hera

Question: I need a greek name of a goddess or woman that means kind of
heart of anything to that effect. Can you help me?

The Graces dispenced charm and beauty. They were:

  • Aglalia – The bright, splenderous one.
  • Euphrosyne – The one with good, cheerful mind
  • Thalia – The blooming one

The Muses presided over arts and sciences and dispensed inspiration.
They are:

  • Calliope – The one with the beautiful voice
  • Clio – The praising one.
  • Erato – The beloved one.
  • Euterpe – Well delighting.
  • Melpomene – The singing one.
  • Polyhymnia – Abounding in song.
  • Terpsichore – The cheering and dancing one.
  • Thalia – The bloming one.
  • Urania – The heavenly one.

All were kind-hearted

Question: What about the hospitality in the odyssey

Answer: The ancient Greeks thought that it was wise to be kind to strangers
because the deities would often visit in this way. They wanted to be kind to
the deities so they would be rewarded.

Question: I’m doing a paper on the role of women in ancient greece. Any
suggestions? Also, how do I cite your info on my works cited page

Answer: You need to focus your topic. I suggest a paper on Circe and
the impact of her story on the role of Women in ancient Greece. I am
preparing for an exhibit on Circe that we will have in Kent on October 1, 2000.
There are quite a few interesting details that can be developed. Click
on the Menu Directory below and click on Circe for more information. To
cite my information put the following in your bibliography: “Kluth, Frederick
John, Role of Women in the Art of Ancient Greece,
[], Sept 9, 2000.

Question: about Scylla

Answer: Scylla.

Question: What exactly did women who were Courtesans do?

Answer: Hetaerae.

Question: cerial

Answer: Cereal is any edible grain. This word is related to Ceres the
Roman goddess of grain. She, in turn, is related to the Greek Goddess Demeter.

Question: Oedipus

Answer: Oedipus was king of Thebes just before the Trojan war. You
can read about him in the play Oedipus Rex by Sophocles. His wife was Jocasta

Question: How are love and marriage viewed in the Iliad?

Answer: Generally, marriages were arranged by the families involved. Helen was married in this way. Sometimes a man was able to choose his wife, if, for example, he captured her
in battle. Ajax chose Tecmessa this way and Achilles chose Briseis. Sometimes a man gained a wife as when he killed a king he took the king’s queen as wife. Oedipus married Jocasta in this way. Odeysseus made a deal for Penelope seemingly after they fell in love. A woman rarely had an opportunity to choose her husband. Both Medea and Ariadne tried this and neither marriage worked out. After marriage love often developed between the husband and wife.

Question: How are love and marriage portrayed inthe Oddessy?

Answer: Love and Marriage is similar in the Odyssey and the Iliad. The
difference is that the goddesses Circe and Calypso did have some opportunity
to choose their mates.

Question: what was a womans role in the greek goverment?

Answer: No role!

Question: OLYMPICS

Answer: Click on the Menu Directory below then click on Olympics.


Answer: Click on the Menu Directory below then click on Lists of
gods and goddesses.

Question: What was ancient Greek medicine like?

Answer: Click on the menu directory below and click on medicine.

Question: were women appreciated for the artwork they produced

Answer: Definitely.

Question: what about tanagra statues

Answer: Some examples follow:

Question: please let me have colour pictures of ancient greek houses and
the inside of their home

Answer: The ancient Greeks led a colorful life but the colors have been lost
through time. They did not like views of the inside of their houses so they
did not paint many. Here is a suggestion:

Click here

Question: what is irises family history

Answer: She was daughter of Thaumas and Electra, and sister of the Harpies.

Question: What was the first event woman participated in the acient olympics.

Answer: The first recorded event was Chariot racing.

Question: where can i find pictures of clothes inancient greece

Answer: Clothing

Question: am i a god

Answer: Probably not, but you can test this. Gods see and know all.
Generally this is revealed by your ability to forcast the future accurately.
Gods can fly through the air. Gods can heal and provide other miracles. Gods
have a sphere of influence, for example Athena is the goddess of wisdom. This
should be known to you. Gods are immortal. Gods eat ambrosia and bleed
ichor which is clear rather than red. It is better to cut youself and see if you bleed ichor than to commit
suicide to see if you are still alive. It is not wise to jump out windows to
see if you can fly. Healing and performing miracles is always good so you
might try this first. Forcasting the future is more troublesome but still
fairly safe. If you pass these first two tests you should simply wait for an
accident to happen to see if you bleed ichor or not. Then you can see whether
you heal. Gods always heal very quickly, while humans heal more slowly, if at

There are a number of mythical personages who seemed to have the situation of not knowing whether they were immortal or mortal. This included Helen and Ariadne.

Question: Any information on Oedipus

Answer: Oedipus solved the riddle of the Sphinx. He then became King of
Thebes and wife to Jocasta. Later he found out that Jocasta was his mother.

Question: Was sophocles perhaps one of the first european feminists with atigone?

Answer: Homer came sooner with Penelope. But because goddesses required
priestesses, there were many feminists in Greek society.


Answer: God and Goddess list

Question: what were some of the laws like in ancient greece??

Answer: Women could not vote. During the classical period in Athens women were not allowed to mourn. In order to be a citizen in ancient Athens both parents needed to be citizens.

Question: do you have any information on Lycurgus’s law were he made
everything equal for anyone. and if it was good or a bad thing to do and what
happened because of it

Answer: In his article on Lycurgus Plutarch says the following:
“Amongst the many changes and alterations which Lycurgus made, the first and of greatest importance was the
establishment of the senate, which having a power equal to the king’s in matters of great consequence, and, as
Plato expresses it, allaying and qualifying the fiery genius of the royal office, gave steadiness and safety to the
commonwealth. For the state, which before had no firm basis to stand upon, but leaned one while towards an
absolute monarchy, when the kings had the upper hand, and another while towards a pure democracy, when the
people had the better, found in this establishment of the senate a central weight, like ballast in a ship, which
always kept things in a just equilibrium; the twenty-eight always adhering to the kings so far as to resist
democracy, and on the other hand, supporting the people against the establishment of absolute monarchy.”

Question: What is a greek women’s role play in the homelife?

Answer: The main role of women in Greek society was as a wife bearing and
raising children. The wives also performed women’s work which included
spinning, weaving, baking bread, cooking, serving, cleaning, fetching water, and removing wastes. In most cases there was a woman who organized these tasks and assigned these tasks to other women relatives or women slaves. The women slaves performed the more menial tasks.

Question: Do you have a picture of Futility, I believe it’s a women with a
pale with water leaking out

Answer: Futility is not a Greek goddess. We know this because futility
is a Latin and not a Greek word. The Greeks were fond of personifications
such as this and they started a practice which many have followed. The name for the Greek goddess would be Ματαιότητα (Mataioteta).

Question: Are there any key things that women did when it came to pottery?

Answer: There is no indication of pottery involving women in ancient Greece. If a man was a potter he might teach his wife to do pottery so it was a family business. But no women has signed a pot.

Question: what Kind OF clothing did the Anciant Greeks look like may i have
a picture on the internet please

Answer: Clothing

Question: What was the role of women in “Oedipus the King”

Answer: Jocasta is the only women in that play as a character and she
has the difficult role of finding that she is both the wife and mother of
Oedipus. She is important in that she presents resonable side of may arguments with Oedipus. She demonstrates the difficulty of this role by killing herself.

Question: how did theater alter the status of women in ancient greece

Answer: It may have done nothing for the women of ancient Greece. But it may have had a remarkable effect on the women after the Renaissance who received a classical education. This is particularly true in England and the United States. The revolutions in education fostered by Horace Mann in Massachusetts included much material from ancient Greek theater.

Question: i have to write my own greek myth. wht is a good topic. I wishmy
main hcaracter to be woman. And most myths have to do with natural ideas. any
ideas? thanx

Answer: In Kent we are going to have an art show about Circe, so she is
the hot topic of the moment. There are many stories that could be told
about Circe. Why is she a solitary goddess? Why does she wear braided hair?
What did she do with all the animals? How did she get servants to help her?
Who else came to her island?

Question: were thier any women war heros

Answer: All the Amazons were women war heroines. The oracle declared that
Athens should defend itself behind walls of wood. This led to Athens defending
itself with ships, and victory. The oracle was a woman. Artemisia was a war
hero but she fought on the side of the Persians.

Question: What did Helen of Troy look like?

Answer: She looked like the most beautiful woman in the world. No pictures
exist which were made in her life time. The Bartlett Head may be a good approximation.

Question: Who is Xarothippe

Answer: I have no information on Xarothippe. Xanthippe was the wife of
Socrates. She was very wealthy and enabled him to stop being a stone cutter
and start being a sophist-philosoper who did not charge a fee.

Question: Was Eo more prone toward Spasrta of Athens?

Answer: Eos and similar goddesses tended to favor those who behaved well
and were respectful and remembered them in their prayers.


Answer: The following book may be helpful:

Hawley, Richard, and Barbara Levick, Women in Antiquity,
Routledge, London and New York, 1995, ISBN 0-415-11-*369-5 (pbk).
Homer is an excellent resource.
Euripides wrote a play called the Trojan Women.

Question: how come i can’t find any information on the religons of Ancient

Answer: There were no religions in Ancient Greece in our sense. They had
religious practices which were held because they thought they were necessary.
Their deities were a part of their real experience. But see Religion.

Question: Name gods

Answer: This is a web site about women and goddesses. But there is a list that includes both at God and Goddess list

Question: throw some light over the role of medea in the play ‘medea’by

Answer: The role of Medea is quite dramatic and it does shed light on the challenges of being a women in ancient Greece. The role is made more complicated by the fact that Medea is powerful as a result of her knowledge of drugs. She is also capable of great violence. She is a worthy opponent for the seemingly ignorant Jason.

Question: How were women actually allowed to participate in art?

Answer: Women in ancient Greece participated in many art media, but
especially weaving, poetry, and music.

Question: Can you post pictures of the old greek olympics? and i need a
complete list of gods,goddesses, and demigods and lower gods like the fates,
muses and others

Answer: There are no pictures of the ancient olympics, just pictures of
athletes. I have a list but it is mostly goddesses. See God and Goddess list

Question: I like to find a picture of Hebe godess of Youth

Answer: Click here

Question: in the odyssey, what do the female characters tell us about greek
culture and their place in greek society?

Answer: The tell us that they were important but that their roles varied a lot.

Question: statues

Answer: There were many wonderful statues produced in ancient Greece. These were made for the glory of the gods and were used to decorate their temples.

Question: can you give me sources from the illiad, oresteia, and symposium
that show the place of women in greek society

Answer: No. Women did not have a single place in Greek Society. What is
interesting about Greek art is the importance of women in a society where
they are physically isolated. The Greeks thought wives’ place was in the
home but there were many women who were not wives. The hetaerae were at
parties with the men. Women slaves did menial work which could have been
anywhere. Women had many places in Greek society.

Question: where can I find information on the role of women in ancient greece

Answer: Read above.

Question: How are women treated and regarded by men?

Answer: This would depend on the man. Some possibilities follow:

  • A self-actualized, moral individual (Penelope).
  • A domineering, posessive person (Clytemnestra)
  • A sex object (Helen)
  • An intellectual partner (Aspasia)
  • A dependent person without will or ability (Aethra)
  • An emotional actress (Medea)

Question: what did the average teenagers do each day

Answer: They were considered adults. Desirable young women were married
and raising babies. The young men were either in school, in the military, or
apprenticed to their fathers.

Question: what was the main thing the women did for ancient art

Answer: Their important contributions to the community inspired men to
include them in the art. The main art for women was fiber art.

Question: womens rights

Answer: Men had only a few rights, but women did not have any.

Question: olympics

Answer: Olympics.

Question: info on goddess Echo??

Answer: Echo was a nymph who fell in love with Narcissus. She was punished
by Hera by only being able to repeat what others say. You can read more
of her sad tale in the Metamorphoses by Ovid.

Question: In any Greek Paintings, is there symbolism of lesbian or gay relations?

Answer: No Ancient Greek paintings have survived. Vase paintings do
illustrate homosexual relations.

Question: pysche

Answer: Psyche.

Question: Can we call Antigone a feminist?

Answer: Only because she herself acts instead of passively waiting for
someone else. But when she acts, she acts for the general good, not just for
the benefit of women.

Question: what is a characteristic fo greek art?

Answer: Ancient Greek art emphasized human ideals.

Question: i need some more help.. ive been researching but ive only found
a few examples of strengths of greece.. do you know some? if u could get this
back to me by tomarrow it would be greatly appreciated

Answer: Ancient Greece had many strengths. Most important was their spirit
of inquiry. A related concept was their idealism. Their spirituality
permeated their arts and so this is also important. They were very
competitive and this lead, for example, to their victory over the Persians.
They were industrious and willing to trade and this lead to wealth. They
were disciplined and courageous and this made them superior warriors.

Question: I am comparing the role and status of women in ancient Egypt,
Etruria, and Greece. I have chosen to examine a piece of sculpture titled,
“Tyche of Antioch.” Do you have any information on goddesses in art, and maybe
what time period this piece is from?

Answer: Tyche of Antioch Roman copy after Eutychides 295 B.C. The
original of this statue was completed during the Hellenistic period. Etruria
was in Italy, north of Rome. At the time of the statue this area was ruled
by Rome. By 295 BCE Greece was ruled by Macedonia, Antioch was ruled by
the Seleucidae, and Egypt by the Ptolemies. The situation in religion had
become very dynamic because the religions of the various areas conquered
by Alexander came in contact with one another. In Greece this caused some
doubt with the old religion, but they were bouyed by the new philosophies.
The Greek religion would exert a strong influence on art until it was broken
in about 125 AD. Other religions did not have such a strong influence on art.
Tyche was the personification of fortune or chance. A number of cities
adopted her as their patron deity during the Hellenistic period when she
became increasingly popular.

Question: What did the women wear headdresses for?

Answer: Headresses were not that common among Greek women. A headress
sometimes provides identity, especially for goddesses, but the goddesses
are not that often identified by their headress. Athena wore a helmet,
which is characteristic. Aphrodite often wore a crown but this might not
be considered a headress. In the Egyptian religion Isis wore a headress which
identifies her.

Question: Who is Hades

Answer: Hades is the god of the underworld and the brother of Zeus. He
rules over the dead with his wife Persephone. Hades is not evil like the
Christian Devil but
he was regarded by the Greeks as a severe punisher of evil. His realm was
believed to be underground and is refered to as the realm of Hades, not
just Hades as you often hear today.

Question: is there a goddess of time?

Answer: It is possible that Rhea is a goddess of time, but I cannot verify
it. This is because Rhea is the wife of Cronus. Cronus became the god of time because of a confusion between ‘cron’ and ‘chron’. He may be a sky god in opposition to Rhea who is an Earth god. Time is closely associated with the heavens.

Daughters of Zeus and Themis include goddesses associated with the seasons and orderly procession of things:

  • Horae (Seasons):
    • Hesiodic:
      • Ειρηνη — Eirene (Goddess of Peace)
      • Eunomia (Goddess of Order)
      • Dike (Goddess of Justice) from Indo-European ‘dhēigu̯- ‘to plant, stab, stick’
    • Homeric:
      • Thallo- Spring
      • Carpo – Autumn
  • Moerae (Fates), Moirai
    • Clotho – Κλωθώ – spinner
    • Lachesis – Λάχεσις – apportioner
    • Atropos – Άτροπος – inflexible (cutter)

Question: Are there any women in either the Iliad or the Aneid that gained
anything by using their looks or sexuality?

Answer: Helen was the face that launched a thousand ships, so her sexuality
caused a war with lots of lives lost. This gained her only dispair. Chryseis
and Briseis were prizes of war captured during battle. Chryseis was the first
prize, given to Agamemnon, while Briseis was second prize given to Achilles.
These women were prizes because they were beautiful. What happened to the
women who were not beautiful? They may have been killed. They were certainly
made slaves to do drudgery. Because of his influence with with the gods,
the father os Chryseis was able to obtain her freedom. In her case her beauty
led to her freedom. Briseis was not able to obtain her freedom, but she
did gain the bed of Achilles. She had a chance to be his wife, or perhaps the
mother of his children. In her case her beauty allowed her the chance to be
the wife of Achilles.

Question: what greek goddess sacrificed herself for art?

Answer: Athena was the goddess of art. Perhaps you are thinking of Galetea?

Question: Is there a god or goddess of food and drink?

Answer: Demeter was the goddess of grain and Dionysus was the god of the
vine and of wine.

Question: Is there any pictures of Atalanta?

Answer: Any picture of Artemis will also serve as a picture of Atalanta.

Question: give me an event that happened in Greece from around 2000-1200 B.C.

Answer: Two events can be identified:

  • The eruption of Thera volcano about 1630/1620.
  • The destruction of TroyVIIa (Perhaps Priam’s city) at 1220 BCE.

Question: Do you have any pictures of the monster Scylla

Europa, Bull, and Scylla

Question: Exactly when did the role of woman in society start to evolve

Answer: Women’s role has always evolved, but it seems that for the last
2000 years society has been patriarchal. During the neolithic period society
did not seem patriarchal and the worship of feminine deities must have been
common. It was in the bronze age, that followed the neolithic, that the move
to patriarchy was started. Some scholars have tied this move to the discovery
of the role of men in the birth of children. But others have pointed to
other causes such as the development of written language.

Question: what are the differences in ancient greek and roman statues o
women? including size of women, portrayal of women, materieals used in
creating the statues, and the inspiration for them

Answer: The Greek statues were inspired by their religious devotion and
created to meet lofty ideals. Few other societies have achieved art with
such purity of spirit, let alone the Romans. The Greeks were also remarkable
in the emphasis placed on women, but it should be noted that they rarely
portrayed contemporary women, but preferred to image divinities and
mythological personages. Romans portrayed real women.

Question: who is leda?

Answer: The mother of Helen and wife of Tyndareus, king of Sparta. Zeus
visited her in the form of a swan and raped her. Helen was born out of one
of the eggs that resulted. She was also the mother of Clytemnestra by

Question: Did Ancient greek women create works of art, music or poems?

Answer: Yes they did. Click on Sappho. Women did most of the
weaving, also, though none of it remains. You can seen embroidery in the ceramic art of the time. But weaving had its effect on the other arts, because clothes are imaged in sculptures and vase paintings. In fact greek garments set a standard for the depiction of drapery which is still in effect today.

Question: what were Greek views on adultery?

Answer: A woman should only have sex with her husband or a man her husband approves.
A man could not have sex with another man’s wife or marriageable daughters. He could not have sex with another man’s slaves either but this was not adultery. He could have sex with other women unless it made his wife unhappy. Mainly he could have sex with hetaerae or prostitutes.

Question: how have women evolved from ancient greek times up to todays
culture and ways

Answer: It is important to realize that women have not physically evolved at
all. Culture has changed, but it has not necessarily improved. The nature of
this change is too large a subject for this site because it involves an
analysis of present culture.

Question: What did a woman who was an artistic patron do? How do they live
and what did the wear?

Answer: In ancient Greece the majority of the patronage was done by priests
and priestesses. These were among the elite of the Greek culture.

Question: Was there any type of role model for the women then?

Answer: One would expect the goddesses to serve as a role model. Certainly
the priestesses would serve as role models. Custom was a strong force so women would look to elder women for their role models.

Question: how do ancient greek women and present greek women differ ?

Answer: For almost 2000 years the Greek Orthodox religion has been the
dominant religion in Greece.

Question: Who is Mother Goddess

Answer: A number of the goddesses can be associated with Mother Goddess:
Rhea, Ge, Hera, Demeter, Athena, and Aphrodite.

Question: Is there a godess of poetry?

Answer: There are nine muses of poetry, all goddesses.

Question: where can I find about odin?

Answer: Odin is a Norse god. For example see:
Click here

Question: What special problems are posed by the history of women in Ancient Greece?

Answer: Women did not write that much, and what was written was often later
destroyed, so we are dependent upon men for their description.

Question: why was the Greek art an important part of the Greeks life?

Answer: Greek art was made for the pleasure of the deities.

Question: what entertainment was there in anicent athens

Answer: Festivals, weddings, symposia. During these there was dancing, singing, juggling, plying of the flute and cythera, readings of poetry, and dining.

Question: Did they get to go to plays?

Answer: In ancient Greece all plays and dramas were part of a religious
festival for men only. Women had their own religious festivals.

Question: find Apollon

Answer: Apollon is French for Apollo.

Question: What kind of tests did the Spartans do when infants were born

Answer: They gave them a visual inspection to see if they were well-formed.

Question: how did greeks keep track of time?

Answer: They used the sun when it was available. If not they used
a water clock to divide the daylight hours into 12 parts. Hours varied
from season to season. Normally only reference to parts of the day were
used. If time was important it would have been assigned to a priest to keep
the time as a prietess kept the fires of Hestia burning eternally. This
was the practice in Europe until recently. There churches were equipped with
bells for the purpose of announcing the time, but there is no indication of a
like practice in Ancient Greece.

Water clock. Such a clock was commonly used to limit the length of speeches.

Question: what role did athenian women have in theatre? Could they even
participate as spectators?

Answer: No role. They could be spectators but it was not proper.

Question: What were the greek women authors names


  • 3rd c. BCE Greece/Amyte/Poet and healer
  • 5th c. BCE Greece/Cleobuline/Poet
  • fl. 490 BCE Greece/Corinna of Tanagro/Poet
  • 6th c. BCE Greece/Erinna/Poet
  • fl. 600 BCE Greece/Megalostrata/Composer and poet
  • 3rd c. BCE Greece/Moero of Byzantium/Poet
  • 6th c. BCE Greece/Myrtis of Anthedon/Poet and Educator
  • 8th c. BCE Greece/Neobule/Poet
  • 8rd c. BCE Greece/Nossis/Lyric Poet
  • fl. 450 BCE Greece/Praxilla/Lyric poet and Composer
  • fl. 600 BCE Greece/Sappho/Lyric Poet

Question: what year was cave art out

Answer: Cave art started more than 25,000 years ago.

Question: about Eos

Answer: Eos was the Dawn Goddess. She was the daughter of Hyperion
and Thia. “And Dawn fell in love with Orion and carried him off and brought
him to Delos; for Aphrodite caused Dawn to be perpetually in love, because she
had bedded with Ares.” (Apollororus 1.4.4)


Question: who was spartacus

Answer: He was a Thracian gladiator who lead a slave revolt against Rome.
He died in 71 BCE.

Question: How were womens rights in Greece differernt than women in Egypt?

Answer: Only the Roman women had rights.

Question: were there stunt women who danced on bull’s horns? I think I
saw something on that once, can’t find it again.

Answer: You are referring to the bull-leaping ceromonies that were part
of the Minoan Religion. Women might have done this but it seems more likely
that they merely rode the bull, as Europa did.

Question: Were women allowed to enter the house at the front by using the
same door as the men?

Answer: The bride went in that door but then she was never supposed to
go out again.

Question: What were some of the important laws of ancient Greece?

Answer: Women could not vote but a citizen had to have both parents be
a citizen.

Question: NEREIDS

Answer: These are ses Nymphs, the daughters of Nereus and Doris. See God and goddess lists

Question: Can you compare Oedipus to Agamemnon. To what degree is each of
these characters responsible for their own destruction?

Answer: You really need to focus on the sources of your information.
Compare Agamemnon by Aeschylus to Oedipus Rex by Sophocles. Ideas of
responsibility vary greatly by author. The ancient Greeks thought each man was responsible for his own acts.

Question: Do you know where I could find information on the moon goddess Selene?

Answer: The Titaness Selene is the Moon. An image of her and an
informative web page is at: <a
href=””>Click Here

Question: Why is there such an overpowering feminine presence in The Odyssey

Answer: The theory is that the Greek Society developed from a society
where the main deities were goddesses.

Question: I need pictures of Aphrodite,Cupid and Zeus. I’m doing research

Answer: Perseus Project

Question: was cassandra the real goddess of love

Answer: Probably not, but it is true that mythical personalities sometimes
merge and separate. Sometimes a story about one person turns up as about
another with the names changed. At the moment I tend to feel the real goddess
of love may be Europa. I have not thought about Cassandra in this vein that
much yet.

Question: I need some reasons why the Greeks liked to paint about Mythology

Answer: To the Greeks it was not myth; it was religion. They felt that
illustrating the old stories would help people get along and be pleasing to
the deities. Most of the Greek art was motivated by their religion.

Question: “why were many different women connected through art?”

Answer: The Greeks had a humanistic tradition. The thought people and
their interactions were important. They focused on illustrating activities
of people, both men and women. The result is that the Greek art provides
a rich history of these activities to the exclusion of self, landscapes,
military escapades, fauna and flora, and many other traditional art subjects.

Question: “did women contribute a lot to art?”

Answer: Yes they did. Mostly the women of classical Greece were models
of grace and beauty for the classical artists. But they also made significant
contributions. Women did all the weaving and clothing arts. Women also
became painters, sculptors, and poets.

Question: did greek women wear make-up? if yes, did they because of other
reasons besides to look pretty?

Answer: Greek women wore make-up to look pretty during the classical period.
During the neolithic peoriod women are believed to have worn make-up for
religious and symbolic reasons.

Question: I read that the Greeks were big on drama…details on how so and
how does that affect us in modern days?

Answer: Drama as we know it began as a part of a religious festival for men.
The ancient Greeks wrote over 1000 plays, of which only 33 have survived.
Of the ancient Greek authors Aeschylus, Aristophanes, Euripides, and Sophocles
are consirered among the 100 most significant ever. Many of these plays are
excellent even today. This drama is the foundation of drama as we know it and even the movies of taday are dependent on this heritage.

Question: who was venus?

Answer: Venus was the Roman goddess of love equivalent to the Greek
Aphrodite. They are essentially equivalent. But the Romans thought more highly of Aphrodite than the Greeks because Aphrodite was the mother of Aeneas, one of the mythical founders of Rome. The named the brightest planet in the sky after her. The Greeks, especially the Athenians, were more fond of Athena.

Question: Is it possible to judge what the life of a 5th Century Athenian
women was like from the historical source material?

Answer: Not really. Very little historical material remains. Though
ancient Greece produced some of the greatest of all historians, they were
isolated from the women and focused on the affairs of men. Though there were
women writers history has not been kind to them and their works were mostly
lost or destroyed. Since the Greeks were prolific and talented artists, their
art has faired better than some other ccultures, but it must be interpreted and cannot be considered historical source material. Since they were the first historians they did not realize what needed to be preserved. And though their work was highly valued by the following civilizations, much of their work has been lost.

Question: whats the importance of women and children to the Greek culture
and today?

Answer: Children are the promise of the future. Women bear and raise them.

Question: what was life like for greek women in 3 and 4 hundreds BCM

Answer: Before 479 was the Archaic Age. The Classical Age extended from 479 BCE to 336 BCE. After that was the Hellenistic Age. The Classical Age in Greece was one of the most exciting times ever to live. Athens was especially exciting because of the level of art and culture in that city. Women did not partake in the excitement as much as men because they were often in their homes. But women were able to interact with the men and were able to
participate at a lower level. It was not that safe a time. Wars were almost constant and there was much loss of life. Public health was not that good and many were lost to disease. But Science and Literature developed rapidly and much progress was made in the understanding of these areas. The people were very literate though men were probably more literate than women. Even so some women chose to educate themselves and participate. Many men chose to write about women in brave and responsible roles. Much of our comfort can be traced to these early efforts.

Question: Picture of pandora

Answer: Ares, Pandora, Aphrodite, and Poseidon

A web pages about Pandora include:

Answer: What is the relationship between visual art and sexual vales in
Ancient Greece?

Answer: We assume there is a relation because there is a relation in our
society. But their art was motivated by spiritual values while ours is often
motivated by economics and personal pleasure. In their case there is little beyond the art to study. Their art is what has been preserved. We do not have diaries, receipts,
newspapers, letters, or any of the other myriad fragments of society that can
be studied today.

Question: What major pieces of art really show the influences that women
had on greek pottery and sculptures.

Answer: For sculpture the Nike of Samothrace and the Venus de Milo will
work. Greek pottery is more difficult. But consider the following vase:
Click here. The fact that there are more women than men on this piece seems to
support a notion of influence. The fact that the women are gracious and
beautiful also supports it.

Question: Were can I find a picture of the Greek Goddess Gaea

Answer: Gaea is the Roman goddess equivalent to the Greek goddess Gaia.

Pictures of Gaia to click on:

Question: portrait

Answer: The ancient Greeks did not do portraits.

Question: In the subject of art and literature, what kind of interaction
happened between the gods and the humans that lived in ancient greece??

Answer: All art and literature in ancient Greece was spiritually inspired
and an attempt to appease the deities. In the ancient Greek dramas there are speeches by the deities. Many ancient Greek art objects include interactions between deities and mortals.

Question: What were the burial rites for the dead, and how did women fufill
that role?

Answer: Burial rites changes changed dramatically between the time of the Trojan War and the time of classical Greece. During the Trojan War a pyre burned the flesh of the bones and the bones were set in a rock cairn. Some time an athletic contest would be held to celebrate the death. This was done for Patroclus in the Iliad. But in Antigone by Sophocles Line 194 Creon states: “Eteocles, who fell fighting in behalf of our city and who excelled all in battle, they shall entomb and heap up every sacred offering that descends to the noblest of the dead below.” Antigone buried her brother Polyneices by sprinkling dirt on him. In classical Athens the dead were buried in the earth. The mourning parties of women were so elaborate that a law had to be past to prevent the waste of scarce resources by restricting these parties.

Question: i need pictures of greek women in general

Answer: All there are are the illustrations of myths. The Greeks made no
illustrations of contremporary culture.

Question: what can the odyssey teach us about the feminine psyche

Answer: For western culture the Greek myths have become a part of our
subconscious. Much of this material is feminine.

Question: Can I see a picture of a mans penis?

Answer: Men are often nude in Greek art as in the following picture of
Hercules: Click here

Question: where is athena from

Answer: Athena May have originally come from the Sahara region of North Africa.

Question: were priestess ever used as healers? where can I look for more

Answer: Asclepius, the god of healing had five daughters: Aceso, Iaso,
Panacea, Aglea, and Hygeia. You need to check out each of these daughters.

Question: i need more info about the “wounded amazon”. where can
i look for it?

Answer: There may be five separate wounded Amazon statues that began with the contest held in Ephesos in 440 BCE. The sculptors Pheidias, Kresilas, Kydon and Phradmon competed. Information about this can be found at::

All of the statues produced at the contest were copied by the Romans. They are classified by their pose.

Question: death song

Answer: I do not find and ancient Greek death songs.

Question: what would an athenian who joined lysistrata tell his husband who
wanted her to break ranks and come home?

Answer: No.

Question: give me a picture of there homes in ancient Greece

Answer: People were all important and homes were simple. Ancient Greeks
did not like pictures of their homes. The piece of house on the left in the
following is about all you will find: Click here


Answer: Mostly drudgery. This included opening and closing doors, carrying water and wastes, grinding grain, tending flocks, serving food, etc.

Question: Can you elaborate on how greek women were known to be great

Answer: The lietrary arts are less problematic than the visual. References
to Sappho are plentiful. Sappho is sometimes referenced as the greatest poet
of either sex. Other women poets are mentioned as well. But even though Judy
Chicago lists a number of women visual artists of ancient Greece, I can find
no references. In spite of this there are compelling reasons for including
women among the visual arts. The most important reason may be that the ancient
Greeks thought their women were beautiful, and did make many works of art
depicting them. You can credit the artists with the beauty of their
representations, but you should also credit the source of their inspiration.
Women were also the weaviers and clothiers and their work was also included in
famous works of art. It is unfortunate that so little of this work remains.

Question: why can’t i get a single bloody picture of a woman of ancient

Answer: The ancient Greeks did not like to have images of their own society.
Portraits of contemporaries were very rare. Since their motivation for art was
religion, they preferred illustrations of myth. But they used their own
people as models. The pictures of the deities are idealized images of their
own people. You must reverse the process to get a picture of the society.

Question: marriage

Answer: weddings

Question: what did architects, sculptors, and painters bring to the empire?

Answer: skills and enthusiasm

Question: how did goddess hera get to become goddess?

Answer: She was born to this rank.

Question: Why were women considereed sub-serviant

Answer: Women were considered weaker and not made to strive with men. Also
the child-bearing capacity of women was vital to the culture.

Question: Can you give me a detailed summary of the agon of The
Frogs?by Aristophanies.

Answer: Click here and read the play yourself

Question: What are the arguments for and against the views that all women
in Athens were dominated by men? Using case studies (hopefully) of
Lysias on the murder of Eratosthenes 6-33,47-50. A husbands defence
Athens, ..c.400 bc. AND The case for the prosecution in a poisoning trial.
Athensc420bc (antiphon prosecution of a stepmother 1-4, 14-20, 25-27.
Tr. K. Freeman.G). AND Proof of marriage. Athens, 4thcent. bc (Isaeus
8.18-20.G). AND FINNALLY how to train a wife. Athens, 4TH CENT.
bc (Xenophon on house hold management) (OECONOMICUS)
6.17-1013 Excrepts. G)

Answer: Why bother when Lysistrata proves that men are dominated by women?

Question: What did Plato thinkofwomen?

Answer: In the Laws III 694d he says ” It would seem that he spent his life,
from his youth, in perpetueal compaigning, and left the training of his sons
to the women, who treated them from their childhood as blessed creatures and
born favorites of fortune endowed with every advantage. They would allow no
one to cross such vastly superior beings in anything, forced everyone to
commend all their sayings and doings, and so turned them out what you might
expect…Why the training one could look for when the children were left to the women of a royal harem, new to affluence and without a man to help them….”

Question: Appollo

Answer: Apollo is a Greek god not a goddess.

Question: how are the woman different from roman woman

Answer: The situation improved for women during the Roman period with
some favorable laws passed and protection of women sponsored by the powerful
wives of the Roman Emperors.

Question: who is dionysius

Answer: Dionysius, also called “The Elder” lived from 430? – 367 BCE was
a Greek tyrant of Syracuse. He was proverbial for his cruelty. Dionysus was
the Greek god of wine.

Question: Whers is your page for Arachne?

Answer: Arachne is not in a Greek myth. She is discussed by Ovid in his

Question: I am doing a paper on how art in ancient greece portrayed the
sexual values off that time. I also need a bit of background history of how
this art cam to be.

Answer: Art and Love and Sex in ancient Greece.

Question: what is the key features of greek acking and drama

Answer: Greek acting and drama create the presence of the gods and goddesses
before you.

Question: what was a disaster that happened in Ancient Greece?

Answer: There was a storm that attacked the Fleet on its return from
the Trojan war and drowned about half the warriors. Nobody even wrote about
the volcano that blew up on Thera about 1600 BCE and destroyed half of Crete.

Question: Where was Eurydice, wife of Creon, from?

Answer: Since she was a member of the aristocracy it might be assumed that she came from one of the neighboring Greek states such as Orchemenos, Euboea, Phokis, Attica, or Megara.

Question: differences between women in the hellenistic style and
neo-classical style

Answer: See for yourself:

Venus de Milo

Ingre’s La Source

Note that it is the Venus de Milo which is taken as the archetype of
feminine beauty and not Ingres’ La Source. Ingre taught that drawing should be
true to life, but his painting is very idealized. Compare this painting to the
many studio drawings of nudes which Ingres produced.

Question: Were women in ancient Greece second class citizens and if so how?

Answer: The miracle is that there were any citizens with rights at all. The
fact that they were not women is disappointing. Formally they were second-class
but informally they were well-off. Women in ancient Greece segregated
themselves by custom and they were able to to avoid male harasment and rape. They also freed themselves of many taboos and rituals that were common in other countries. Those that were
suited to the role of child-rearing did quite well. The ones that suffered were the others, and the slaves and other women who did the drudgery and hard work.

Question: Dous god exsist

Answer: The more pertinent question for this web site is do gods and
goddesses exist. The ancient Greeks, before the end of the Classical period
had no doubt that they did and worshiped them because they thought it was
necessary. Toward the end of the classical period philosophers such as Plato
and Aristotle started to question the nature of the Greek gods and goddesses.
By 125 AD and well into the Roman period few in Greece thought that the worship
of the Greek deities was necessary. But the experience of the Greeks was not
lost. Many of the Greek deities became angels and many of the Greek ceremonies
became Christian ceremonies. The Greek philosophers started a line of
reasoning which has been very important to Christianity. A number of
Christians have even provided logical proofs for the existence of God. Interestingly the Greek deities are used as personifications of important concepts such as love. If Aphrodite is the personification of love, then she is equilavent to love. Since love existes so must Aphrodite.

Question: why did they were veils when going outside?

Answer: When Hera wished to take advantage of Zeus through his lust for her
“She put on the wondrous robe which Minerva had worked for her with
consummate art, and had embroidered with manifold devices; she
fastened it about her bosom with golden clasps, and she girded herself
with a girdle that had a hundred tassels: then she fastened her
earrings, three brilliant pendants that glistened most beautifully,
through the pierced lobes of her ears, and threw a lovely new veil
over her head.” (Iliad, Book XIV)

Hecuba may have worn a veil outside because: “Thus was the head of Hector
being dishonoured in the dust. His mother tore her hair, and flung her veil
from her with a loud cry as she looked upon her son.” (Iliad, Book XXII)

Veils were also used as a part of wedding ceremonies: “When she reached
the battlements and the crowd of people, she stood looking out upon the
wall, and saw Hector being borne away in front of the city- the horses
dragging him without heed or care over the ground towards the ships of
the Achaeans. Her eyes were then shrouded as with the darkness of
night and she fell fainting backwards. She tore the tiring from her
head and flung it from her, the frontlet and net with its plaited
band, and the veil which golden Venus had given her on the day when
Hector took her with him from the house of Eetion, after having
given countless gifts of wooing for her sake.” (Iliad, Book XXII)

Veils can set a mood: “The goddess took her dark veil, than which there can
be no robe more sombre, and went forth with fleet Iris leading the way before
her.” (Iliad, Book XXIV)

In the Odyssey Calypso also seems to wear a veil outside: “So soon as
early Dawn shone forth, the rosy-fingered, anon
Odysseus put on him a mantle and doublet, and the nymph
clad her in a great shining robe, light of woof and
gracious, and about her waist she cast a fair golden
girdle, and a veil withal upon her head.” (Odyssey, Book III)

The nymph Ino provides Odysseus with an imperishable veil to protect him:
“Here, take this veil imperishable and wind it about
thy breast; so is there no fear that thou suffer aught or
perish. But when thou hast laid hold of the mainland with
thy hands, loose it from off thee and cast it into the
wine-dark deep far from the land, and thyself turn away.” (Odyssey, Book III)

Circe also seems to wear a veil outside: “Then
she put on me a mantle and a doublet for raiment, and the
nymph clad herself in a great shining robe, light of woof
and gracious, and about her waist she cast a fair golden
girdle, and put a veil upon her head.” (Odyssey, Book X)

The veil of Ino is most suggestive because it has a protective power.
The suggestion is that it is warding off something while still allowing
a view. Since brides wear it the warding off probably relates to their ability
to have children. Women originally wore veils for the warding off reason and
then discovered that men were attracted by the gauzy look. This caused them
to wear them for seduction as Hera did.

Question: I am suppose to ananlyze a vase with a picture of a women
spinning wool. Why is the woman depicted on a piece of pottery, and how does
this exemplify the values and roles of Athenian women?

Answer: That wool working is honest women’s work suitable even for queen’s
is evident from the following passages: Homer, Iliad, Book XII: “…and as
some honest hard-working woman weighs wool in her balance and sees that the
scales be true, for she would gain some pitiful earnings for her little

Homer, Odyssey, Book XVIII: Odysseus says to the maids of Penelope: “Ye maidens of Odysseus, the lord so long afar, get ye into
the chambers where the honoured queen abides, and twist the
yarn at her side, and gladden her heart as ye sit in the
chamber, or card the wools with your hands;…”

Homer, Odyssey, Book XXII: Eurycleia tells Odysseus: “Thou hast fifty
women-servants in thy halls, that we have taught the ways
of housewifery, how to card wool and to bear bondage.”

But perhaps more important is the relation of the Fates to weaving: Homer,
Odyssey, Book VII: “…but thereafter he shall endure such things as
Fate and the stern spinning women drew off the spindles for
him at his birth when his mother bare him.” The primary motivation for Greek
art is religion and the primary reason for including women in art is the
fact that the goddesses might be pleased. That the fates are women weavers
suggest that they might be pleased with pictures of women weaving. Examples
of suitable vase illustrations follow:

women working wool

women preparing wool

Question: I have to do a paper comparing Greek, Roman and Medieval art, any

Answer: Many of the Greek deities with wings turned into angels.

Question: Waht kind of toys did children in ancient greece play with?

Answer: Dolls, hoops, and balls.

Question: Do you have any info on the greek goddess Niode

Answer: Niobe was not a goddess but a mortal woman with 12 beautiful
children. She bragged to Leto that she had twelve but Leto only had two
an Leto had her children Apollo and Artemis kill the twelve of Niobe.

Question: What does Lysistrata represents for the Greek society and what
is her importance?

Answer: She was focusing on a key weakness of the society. She was a
social critic at a time when criticism was vital. She has inspired other women
to take action.

Question: I have to write a lengthy report on women in mythology. Some of the
ways I was going to go with it were…compare/contrast of regular women and
goddesses…how Greek and Roman women differed….how normal women and
goddesses were viewed (were either equal to the other sex)…if gods got away
with more immoral things than the goddesses…what stories(if any) are good
examples of any of these instances? And what other aspects should I explore. I
can make the topic into just about anything and go any way I want with it, what
do you suggest? Thank you so much! By the way, your website is amazing, it is
exremely informative and you have unbeleivable patience!

Answer: Focus on one character, Medea. Try to determine if she was a
historical character, a mythological mortal, or a goddess. If she was not a
goddess where did she get her powers? If she was a goddess why did she have
to struggle so hard? What kind of real person might have started those
stories that collected around her name?

Question: Mother holding child in one hand and holding a hammer in the other

Answer: I wonder if this relates to Hera the mother of Hephaistos whose symbol was a hammer.

Question: compare Medea and Clytemnestra

Answer: See: Click here

Question: In the culture portrayed in Homer’s works what do you think the
women’s role was?

Answer: The amazing thing about Homer’s work is the breadth and diversity
of the role of women.

Question: what is Apollos Symbol

Answer: A lyre.

Question: is there any art from the fourth cent. that has all six
goddesses pictured together

Answer: Wedding scenes often show lots of goddesses for example:
Click here from 350 BCE.

Question: Are there any pictures of sculptors i can print?

Answer: Portraits of contemporaries by ancient Greek artists are very rare
and I know of no sculptors.

Question: did the atehenian democracy consider women to be political

Answer: No. The men did the politics for the women.

Question: how important were the women influencing athenian art
and literature.

Answer: They were very important. Even in the drama, which was for men
only, women were frequently and respectfully portrayed.

Question: what web site can i go to get pictures of the Odyssey and the
Iliad? I have a project due tom. pls. help!!!!!

Answer: Art & Archaeology Artifact Browser

Question: tell me about the por the ritch and prostitutes women in ancent greece

Answer: Sadly a female slave could be forced into prostitution by her master
or mistress. Slaves could also literally be sex slaves. If a prostitute
achieved a degree of wealth she could purchase her own freedom. She would no
longer be a prostititute but would be called a hetaera. A good hetaera was
able to perform other services besides sex, though. Often she could sing and
dance, or even converse intelligently. Usually hetaeras were specially trained
and did not raise up from prostitution.

Question: Did families have a certain number of children they could have?

Answer: No. They had as many as possible.

Question: As a student of the arts, I have read about Isadora Duncan’s
great interest and in depth study of the art of the ancient Greeks in order
to give foundation to the style of her unique art that forever changed the
way society looks at dance. I am curious if your studies took you to her
school of thought and if so, what you might have to say about your findings
and feelings. I find her art important to even more than she has already
touched and happened onto your article only by chance. I find this chance is
of some importance and enjoyed your article. Thank you.

Answer: Isadora Duncan (1878-1927) lived at a time when women were just
beginning to be educated and Greek culture was a primary content of that
education. It would not be surprising that she was strongly influenced by
the art of the Greeks. I have just been thinking of how the play
Lysistrata might be staged and hit upon the idea of using a
dancer with Isadora’s style to star in this production in a non-speaking role.

Question: Im doing a paper on comparing and contrasting women in at least
2 different cultures in world mythology, one in which Im intrested in is Greek
mythogoly, what other mythology would you suggest that would offer the
greatest contrast towards that? And in what direction should I take with it?

Answer: You could compare classical Greek mythology to Mycenaean or Minoan
Mythology to study the development of myth. Or you could compare
the corn goddess of the Mayan peoples with Demeter of the Greeks. The
notion of sacrifice differed greatly between these. You might also look at
some of the North African myths to see if there are goddesses of war like
Athena who came from North Africa.

Question: what do you think about Kate in Taming of the Shrew oposed to
Medea and the role of Women

Answer: Kate was a shrew that needed taming. Medea did not need taming.
Mostly she was helping other people out. But Jason got greedy and thankless
so Medea sought vengeance.

Question: Who made clothes?

Answer: Women made all the clothes.

Question: Did flowers ever play a role in the worship of the goddess

Answer: Yes, and the crocus was particularly important.


Answer: The following atrocities are documented in Greek myth:

  • Medusa was raped by Poseidon in the temple of Athena.
  • Cassandra was raped by Ajax while she clung to a statue of Athena.
  • The body of Penthesilia was violated by Achilles after he killed her.
  • Polyxena was sacrificed on the tomb of Achilles.
  • The enslaved Cassandra was murdered by Clytemnestra.
  • The women of Troy were enslaved by the Greek Army

Aphrodite of Kanidos

Question: Is there any interesting information about the Aphrodite of Kanidos,
such as why she was created and what deveopments in Greecian arts does she

Answer: You are referring to the Cnidian Aphrodite that Praxitiles carved.
She is also refered to as the Aphrodite of Cnidus (Knidos), and the Venus of
Cnidos. Only Roman copies of this statue exist with the formost in the
Vatican where it has beed called the Standing Venus, the Venus emerging from
the bath, and the pudic Venus. More information on this statue can be found in
the section on Aphrodite.

Question: why did not the athenian democracy consider women to be political

Answer: The people of Athens thought women should stay home and take care of
the home and have babies, while the men should do all the work outside of the
home. The army had a long history of woting and since the army held the power of the country only the soldiers voted.

Question: where can we find information on Eris/goddess of discord and where
can we find pictures of her?

Eris, the goddess of discord. Eris is the goddess of strife and the
sister of Ares. It is she
who threw the golden apple with the words ‘for the fairest’ that caused
the three goddesses Athena, Aphrodite, and Hera to contend for the apple.
Paris did the judging and Aphrodite bribed him with Helen. He ran away with
Helen and this started the Trojan War.

Of Eris Hesiod says only “On a fifth day, they say, the Erinyes assisted at
the birth of Horcus (Oath) whom Eris (Strife) bare to trouble the forsworn.”


Question: why is Penelopes weaving of the shroud important in the Odyssey?

Answer: It demonstrates her ability to manipulate men.

Question: Re their any interesting facts about Charybdis?

Answer: Homer says (Odyssey, Book XII): “And thereon is a great
fig-tree growing, in fullest
leaf, and beneath it mighty Charybdis sucks down black
water, for thrice a day she spouts it forth, and thrice a
day she sucks it down in terrible wise. Never mayest thou
be there when she sucks the water, for none might save thee
then from thy bane, not even the Earth-Shaker!


What Homer has described is a periodic whirlpool formed by an underground
cavern, that is alternately activated by the earth’s tides.

Question: Where can I find a picture of Cumean Sybil?

Answer: Click here for Sibyl.

Question: Were diets balanced?

Answer: Yes, better than today. The main problem was lack of food and
spoiled food, rather than balance. They ate Fish, whole grains, fruits and vegetables in season, and meats when they could.

Question: Hippolyte

Answer: Amazons.

Question: How were women treated in their old age? Who took care of them?

Answer: Most people, especially women, were very dependent upon their family
to take care of them when they were sick or old. If you could not work, you were not worth much and might be left to die. A master might be taken care of by
slaves, but it is unlikely a slave would be taken care of by a master. Children
would take care of their parents if their work was so productive that there were
left-overs. Aethra, the mother of Theseus, became the servant of Helen.

Question: tell me about method of cooking used by ancient athens.

Answer: Bread was baked in a bread oven. Most meat was roasted on a spit.
Many stews were prepared in a stew pot. Fish was cooked in a fry pan. Flat bread was also cooked in a fry pan.

Question: where can i find some greek coins ?i already have one

Answer: Click here

Question: why did not the athenian democracy consider women to be political

Answer: The people of Athens thought women should stay home and take care of
the home and have babies, while the men should do all the work outside of the
home. Men also had the power because they were soldiers.

Question: How costume reflected how women were treared

Answer: Clothes and their value are a measure of respect and social value.
In many societies the status of women is determined by the value of jewelry that
they wear. Notice in the following images that the richness of the clothes
closely resembles the status of the goddesses:

Though in this series, it is Zeus in the throne, still the women are
well-dressed compared to Zeus.

Question: how are women in ancient Greek different from women today?

Answer: The culture of ancient Greece was one of the the highest ever
achieved, though the men seem to have participated more than the women. The
women were somewhat separated but they had many of their own events. Most
of their time was taken up by housework. The representation of women in
art suggests they participated fully. And though women did not receive a formal
education, many did receive an effective one.

Women today are better educated, and better represented because they have the
the right to vote. They get better medical care and more choice in their
employment and their family. But they are not necessarily better off. War
and environmental destruction have been difficult to live with. Better media
and transportation makes many women more desirous of things they cannot afford.

Question: What does the symbol “labris” actully look like?

Answer: Souvenirs of Minoan Crete, On the left is a labrys.

Question: what was greece like in the beginning

Answer: (ll. 36-52) Come thou, let us begin with the Muses who gladden
the great spirit of their father Zeus in Olympus with their
songs, telling of things that are and that shall be and that were
aforetime with consenting voice. Unwearying flows the sweet
sound from their lips, and the house of their father Zeus the
loud-thunderer is glad at the lily-like voice of the goddesses as
it spread abroad, and the peaks of snowy Olympus resound, and the
homes of the immortals. And they uttering their immortal voice,
celebrate in song first of all the reverend race of the gods from
the beginning, those whom Earth and wide Heaven begot, and the
gods sprung of these, givers of good things. Then, next, the
goddesses sing of Zeus, the father of gods and men, as they begin
and end their strain, how much he is the most excellent among the
gods and supreme in power. And again, they chant the race of men
and strong giants, and gladden the heart of Zeus within Olympus,
— the Olympian Muses, daughters of Zeus the aegis-holder.
(Hesiod, The Theogony)

Question: who is themis (goddess of justice)

Answer: Click on Themis.

Question: I am wondering what type of domestic female scenes (basket
carrying, weaving etc.) are portrayed in Greek pottery of the classical
period, and when it does appear, what is it typically in relation to.

Answer: Such scenes do exist but they are fairly infrequent. Here are
some examples:

Question: In what way did Greeek art in the Archaic period to Hellenistic
period reflect the Women?

Answer: Women were a common subject sensitively portrayed.

Question: Hi, I need to write a paper on Women in Greek art from the Archaic
period to the hellenistic period and I need to five four or five works, can u
suggest any? One of the ones i picked was The Stele of Hegeso..any other
suggestions? I thought i’d say the the Stele of Hegeso shows women in the
classical age where women had little power and lived by a mans name..etc..but i
need more works.. also I was thinking of using Aphrodite as a work..but i don’t
know… i’m kindof stuck, can you help pls!! This research paper is due soon!

Answer: What you need to do is trace a theme though time. The Judgement of
Paris is a theme that has been repeatedly portrayed and might be a good theme.
The Stele of Hegeso is illustrated as follows: Click here. The description of this piece is: “A girl (servant) standing in a relaxed pose to the right, wearing slippers, a long, unbelted tunic, with long sleeves, and her hair bound in a sakkos, holds an opened box on the knees of a mature woman, seated profile to the left, on a klismos. Her sandalled feet rest on a footstool. Her himation, which is veiled
over her head, and bunched in her lap, mostly covers her undergarment (chiton).
She holds the box with one hand, and raises her right hand slightly, presumably
holding a beloved jewel, at which she gazes.” Now you must consider the theme
to investigate: girls, seated women, chairs, sandalled feet, clothes, boxes,
or perhaps jewelry. The drapery also seems important here. Now find four other
pieces with the same theme. Here are some other statues of girls:

Question: Was there any women that were citizens or held high possitions?

Answer: Women were excluded from politics in classical Greece. Helen,
Penelope, and Clytemnestra were all queens in the Mycenaean culture and
Pasiphae was queen in the Minoan culture. Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, and
Atremis were all goddesses who ruled their own domains. The women in high positions were mostly priestesses. They can be quite important as indicated by the refences to priestesses in Pausanias, Description of Greece

Question: Hecuba

Awswer: Hecuba was Queen of Troy during the Trojan war. She and King Priam
had many children, but she lived to see her husband and sons killed during
that war. She also saw her daughters raped, sacrificed, and taken into
slavery. She is a character in the Iliad, The Trojan Women, and other works
including Hecuba by Euripides.

Question: what was homer’s view on women?

Answer: Homer felt women were important and should be included in any good

Question: whats Aphrodite’s weaknesses

Answer: The virgin goddesses knew her weaknesses. Artemis used the ignorance
of youth. Athena used wisdom. Hestia used the shelter of the family.

Question: who is the greek goddess of strife

Answer: Eris

Question: Where can I find a picture of Scylla from The Odyssey?


Question: Why did it take so ling for women to be reconzied in ancient Greek?

Answer: Women were recognized for their ability to have sex and make babies.
But the men did not realize that they needed to be educated to do this
job well. Plato makes the observation that women make poor teachers. Of
course this was because they had no education, but he does not realize this. The
further isolation of women had some benefits. Rapes and adultery were much
decreased and much less time was spent enforcing taboos. But women were isolated
from society and gained a poor understanding of it. The time a child spends
with a mother during the first 5 years of life is vital for setting habits
and attitudes later in life. The more a mother understands about the
expectations of her child later in life the better the child will benefit
during the first 5 years.

The Greeks also made the mistake of thinking that since raising children were
vital to the community that every women should be expected to do this. The
fact is that many women are unsuited to do this. They are too young, too old,
physically unable, psychologically unsuited, etc. These women should be
integrated into the community as well so their talents are not wasted. Typically
they need to be trained to work so they can contribute an support themselves.
The only work women were trained to do was entertaining. Though some women
do well in this area, there are many other areas where they can contribute.

Question: I would like to know with your advice with reference to appropriate
examples, which period of art is the most appealing, archaic or classical?

Answer: I like puzzles and the archaic art has more puzzles, but the classical
art has been more influential. The most influential art object of all time is
probably Praxiteles Aphrodite of Cnidos. But the mystery of the Minotaur has
caught my attention at the moment. The challenge is to make real sense of it.

Question: What has any of this information got to do with art? The word art
is only mentioned in the title, this is hardly sutiable information needed to
know about womens roles in ancient greek art is it?

Answer: The vast majority of information about any aspect of Greek culture
comes to us from the art of ancient Greece. What is amazing is that so much
of that art is devoted to women. Because of this women contributed enormously
to ancient Greek art, but the contribution is very complex. As a result the
study of ancient Greek women involves the study of ancient Greek art which
involves the study of ancient Greek women, and so on.

Question: Where does Athena come from?

Answer: Tunisia in North Africa.

Question: any info on greek vases?

Answer: Rules for art on pottery are determined by the chemistry of the
process involved. This process changes as new techniques are developed. The
ancient Greeks were very successful both in their use of technique, and in the
development of new processes. The best approach is to look at an individual
art style during a particular period.

The main pottery styles are:

  • Early Bronze Age
  • Middle Bronze Age
  • Late Bronze Age
  • Geometric
  • Orientalizing
  • Black-Figure Vases
  • Red-Figure Vases
  • White-Ground
  • Hellenistic
  • Everyday Pots

Question: What are the roles of women in the Aenied

Answer: The Aenead is a Roman and not a Greek work

Question: what where some of the women artist of ancient greece names

  • 5th c. BCE Greece/Anasandra/Painter
  • 5th c. BCE Greece/Cresilla/Sculptor
  • 5th c. BCE Greece/Helena/Painter
  • 7th c. BCE Greece/Kora/Artist
  • 4th c. BCE Greece/Lalla/Artist
  • fl. 800 BCE Greece/Timarete/Painter

There are also famous women musicians and poets.

Question: Where can I find pictures of Ancient Greek houses


Question: the place of women ın ancıent Greek and theır place
ın Athenian politics espscially

Answer: Women were excluded from politics but held an important place in Greek


Answer: Aspasia was an advisor but women were excluded from government.

Question: daphne

Answer: Daphne is mentioned by Pausanius as being loved by Leucippus and
by Apollo. Daphne is not mentioned by Hesiod or Homer. The Roman author
Ovid writes more about Daphne in his Metamorphosis

Question: What was aphrodites role in art and how has it changed over time

Answer: Originally art depicting Aphrodite was for religious purposes. But
with the sculpture of Aphrodite nude by Praxiteles, the art of Aphrodite
turned to mundane and even erotic purposes. This has agravated some of the
status problems of women. Clothes are a sign of status, and when you remove
clothes status is removed. Aphrodite without clothes is an erotic woman without
status. This, unfortunately, reinforces the notion of a woman as a sex object.

Question: Why were there no female heros in Ancient Greece Fri, 17 Nov 2000 20:24:22 -0500 (EST)

Answer: There are many female heroes in Ancient Greece during the Age of

  • Ariadne-Moon Goddess, Queen, daughter of Minos, king of Crete
  • Antigone-The daughter of Oedipus
  • Atalanta-The hunter and athlete
  • Cassandra-Daughter of Priam, king of Troy, and mistress of Agamemnon
  • Clytemnestra-Wife of Agamemnon and Queen of Mycenae
  • Electra-Daughter of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae
  • Helen-The face that launched a thousand ships
  • Hippolyte-Queen of the Amazons
  • Lampedo-Queen of the Amazons
  • Medea-Sorceress
  • Martesia-Queen of the Amazons
  • Medusa-Amazon leader

Question: Is there any information on how pottery could relate to the comedy
“Lysistrat” by Aristophane? Fri, 17 Nov 2000 20:56:10 -0500 (EST)

Answer: Women were not involved in the manufacture or decoration of pottery
but they were much involved with its daily use. In their daily lives women
carried water, washed, cooked, and stored things all in pottery pots. Some of
their weaving tools were also made of pottery. Since pottery was so much
involved with the daily lives of women you would expect it to be in a play
like Lysistrata that involves women.

Question: do you have any mosaics on dolphins or fish?

Answer: Click here

Question: What were the roles of women in the Aeneid?

Answer: The Aeneid was written by Vergil, an Roman, and out of the scope of
this site.

Question: Why are the nude female figurines important in Greek sculpture?

Answer: They were beautiful and sexy.

Question: what is the name of the thunder god

Answer: Zeus.

Question: Hi, recently i asked about women from Archaic to Hellenistic
period and i told u i was using Stele of Hegeso as one of my works for the
Classical period…which works can I use for the Hellenistic period? I used
the Peplos Kore for the Archaic period and compared her to a male statue of
that period, but i’m stuck and don’t know which work to use for Hellenistic
period, i think one or two would be enough. I have to show the developpment
of the women form in Greek scultpure. This research paper is due tomorrow,
can u pls help me? and thanx for the previous info, it was really helpful. (I
hope i’ll get a reply today…please..i’m desperate to finish on time). thanx
once again! :o)

Answer: Any statue of a goddess will work, even the Venus de Milo.

Question: Praxiteles

Answer: Praxiteles was one of the most famous and influential Athenian
sculptors who lived around 370 to 340 BCE. He was the first to carve a naked
goddess and his “Aphrodite of Cnidus” was much copied.

Question: What were goddesses?

Answer: Female gods.

Question: Greek depictions of the female characters in The Odyssey tell us
something about Greek society. How do you think the conlcusions we can
draw about society from the art compare to the conclusions we draw from
Homer’s work? Also, why do you think some of the depictions of The
Odyssey’s female characters in art are different from how Homer described

Answer: Homer was describing the Mycenaean culture of 1200 BCE. We have
very little art from that period and no art that illustrates Homer. The
illustrators of Homer came much later and used contemporary women as models.

Question: when the slave women were sent to colonies-mainly magna
graecia- were they then comsidered free? or were they still slaves?

Answer: Slaves.

Question: I think your whole website is cool but How did you get all this
information?I read greek myths before I go to bed foe a year and I still don’t
know as much as you!


  • I use good resources (Click on the menu directory below then click on
  • I know how to use the computer to build a good database.
  • I know how to search the Internet.
  • I have been studying myths much longer than you have.
  • I studied useful subjects in school like math, science, and philosophy.

Question: the winged victory

Answer: Click on Nike.

Question: can you give examples fro the role of women useing Oedipus the
King. Antigone, Medea

Answer: This is an easy assignment when you read the plays.

Question: war

Answer: The Greeks fought many wars, both internal conflicts and external
ones against foreign invaders. They recorded the Trojan War. They repelled the Persians against huge odds. They were defeated by the Macedonians under
Alexander in 335 BCE and became a Roman province in 148 BCE. Mars was the god
of war but Athena was the goddess of victory in war.

Question: are greek wemen vergens

Answer: To the Greeks any unmarried woman was a virgin. Artemis tried to
protect the young women so they were chaste when they married. To them this
meant that they had not become pregnant.

Question: What is belief called when a person worships more than one

Answer: Polytheism

Question: what kind of role did the greek women play in athletics?

Answer: They encouraged and sustained it.

Question: who rallied Greek women to without sex until war stopped

Answer: The leading character in Lysistrata by Aristophanes.

Question: what was the symbolism of the depiction of women

Answer: The classical Greeks depicted women in respectful, sympathetic
ways, but they also depicted a rich variety of activities.

Question: Was Ancient Greek Hospitality important)

Answer: Yes it was. They believed the when a deity visited they would
do it in the guise of a stranger. If you mistreated a stranger, you might
be mistreating a deity.

Question: What are the differences between the women in Greek society and
Women in the patriarchal societ?

Answer: Classical Greece was a fairly patriarchal society, while Greece
during the bronze age was not.


Answer: Search for Cybebe, Cybele, Great Mother and you will find more

Question: With duis the grece theater is stan today?

Answer: Today the Greek theater is both educational and entertaining. It
often serves as a model for what great theater should be.

Question: were women important?

Answer: They were very important.

Question: women as objects in art

Answer: The ancient Greeks included many images of handsome women in their
art. The women are treated respectfully and, in many cases, as the important
images. This contrasts with the literature of the time which often demeans
the women of the time. The reason for this contrast is the subject of much

Question: Phryne

Answer: Phryne was a famous hetaera that posed for Praxiteles when he
sculpted his famous Aphrodite statue.

Question: Did women have to take an oath when they got married, if so
what was it?

Answer: No such oath is known, yet Pythagoreans may have required an oath
of the husband to the effect that he was not to harm his wife but he must treat
her as a suppliant raised from the hearth. (Hawley, 115)

Question: Why were women treated so badly

Answer: A more truthful statement is that they were treated differently.
One problem it that life was more challenging, and everyone had to work very
hard. Many people were treated badly for this reason. Women were treated
badly by our standards, but they understood the demands and they accepted them.
Things were a lot worse elsewhere. The isolation of women, which we
deplore, protected them from other kinds of bad treatment.

Question: How does the treatment/role of women in the odyssey compare to it
in modern society

Answer: There is a large difference between the role of women in the
Odyssey and the role of women in classical Greece. There is an even
larger difference between the times of the Odyssey and now. But
many of the differences are subtle. One problem is that the classical authors
tended to ignore the differences and we know that much less about them. For
example, from archeological evidence it has been concluded that the women of
the Odyssey were completely dominated by their religion. The classical
women were much less dominated. But the classical authors treated the women
of the time of Odyssey as though they worshipped in the same way as the
classical women. Property was based on a matrilineal relationship at the
time of the Odyssey, but by the classical period all property was patriarchal.

Today women can vote and receive an education. They can own property
an they are free to travel. Today they have rights to life, libety, and the
pursuit of happiness, while during the heroic times they had none of these
things. Many women were slaves while today slavery is illegal. Most women
in the U.S. have healthcare, good water, and sewage treatment, which the modern
woman considers a necettity. Very little was available during the heroic

Question: do you have any pictures of woman athletes from ancient time??

Answer: The book by Mark Golden has a picture of an ancient female athlete
on page 130. Click on the menu directory below and click on bibliography.

Question: Did the children have labors?

Answer: When children could work they ceased being children. Children grew
up very fast in ancient Greece.

Question: was there a conflicted between womens’ portrayal in art and their
role in society in 5th century athens?

Answer: Yes there was. Women were illustrated as important and significant
but they were described as being secluded and unimportant.

Question: were they happy people?

Answer: They had much to be happy about.

Question: Do you have any or know of any place where I can find ancient
grecian costumes? thanks!

Answer: Links:

Question: What is the symbol that best symbolizes Athena?

Answer: An owl.

Question: A picture of an ancient Athenian woman

Answer: Praxiteles used Phryne, an Athenian woman, as a model for his
famous sculpture of Aphrodite.

Question: does homer see helen as a fallen women in the iliad.did such a
women exist and did she actually cause the war

Answer: Helen was not a fallen women, but she was regretful. The ancient
Greeks thought she actually existed and caused a war. Archeologists have
found evidence of a war but not Helen.

Question: ()

Answer: The wives had babies and took care of the house. The women
slaves helped with this work.

Question: what role did women mainly play in the archaic period? the
classical period?

Answer: The main difference in the role of women from the archaic period
to the classic period is that during the classic period their role was very
formal, while during the archaic period it was more flexible. But if
you go back just a little bit to the heroic period, the difference is very

Question: Do you have any vases?

Answer: I have vases relating to ancient Greece, and I have pictures of them.


Answer: Amazons are often depected in armour. Goddesses are also depicted in armour.

Question: What were Ancient Greek drama masks made out of?

Answer: Wood or clay.

Question: What did the job of clothing maker consist of in Greece from
500 – 250 BC?

Answer: Spinning, dying, weaving, and sewing. Almost everything was made
from rectangles of material.

Question: Did women have any power? why?

Answer: Women obtained most of the power they wanted from their husbands.
Problems occurred when the husbands were unreasonable and unsympathetic.

Question: What was the role of the Guardian Sphinx (Greek Attic, Ca.
530BC) and what was the myth behind this creature

Answer: The following quote from Apollodorus is excellent: ” Laius was
buried by Damasistratus, king of Plataea, and Creon, son of Menoeceus,
succeeded to the kingdom. In his reign a heavy calamity befell Thebes. For
Hera sent the Sphinx, whose mother was Echidna and her father Typhon; and she
had the face of a woman, the breast and feet and tail of a lion, and the wings
of a bird. And having learned a riddle from the Muses, she sat on Mount
Phicium, and propounded it to the Thebans. And the riddle was this:– What is
that which has one voice and yet becomes four-footed [p. 349] and two-footed
and three-footed? Now the Thebans were in possession of an oracle which
declared that they should be rid of the Sphinx whenever they had read her
riddle; so they often met and discussed the answer, and when they could not
find it the Sphinx used to snatch away one of them and gobble him up. When
many had perished, and last of all Creon’s son Haemon, Creon made proclamation
that to him who should read the riddle he would give both the kingdom and the
wife of Laius. On hearing that, Oedipus found the solution, declaring that
the riddle of the Sphinx referred to man; for as a babe he is four-footed,
going on four limbs, as an adult he is two-footed, and as an old man he gets
besides a third support in a staff. So the Sphinx threw herself from the
citadel, and Oedipus both succeeded to the kingdom and unwittingly married
his mother, and begat sons by her, Polynices and Eteocles, and daughters,
Ismene and Antigone. But some say the children were borne to him by Eurygania,
daughter of Hyperphas.” Reference

Question: when did women start playing sport?

Answer: The following quote from the Odyssey, Book VI suggests an early
time for sport: “Then having bathed and
anointed them well with olive oil, they took their mid-day
meal on the river’s banks, waiting till the clothes should
dry in the brightness of the sun. Anon, when they were
satisfied with food, the maidens and the princess, they
fell to playing at ball, casting away their tires, and
among them Nausicaa of the white arms began the song.”

The following fragment of Hesiod describes the sporting contest of
Atalanta which occured before the Trojan war:
“Papiri greci e latini, ii. No. 130 (2nd-3rd century) (11):
(ll. 1-7) `Then straightway there rose up against him the trim-
ankled maiden (Atalanta), peerless in beauty: a great throng
stood round about her as she gazed fiercely, and wonder held all
men as they looked upon her. As she moved, the breath of the
west wind stirred the shining garment about her tender bosom; but
Hippomenes stood where he was: and much people was gathered
together. All these kept silence; but Schoeneus cried and said:

(ll. 8-20) `”Hear me all, both young and old, while I speak as my
spirit within my breast bids me. Hippomenes seeks my coy-eyed
daughter to wife; but let him now hear my wholesome speech. He
shall not win her without contest; yet, if he be victorious and
escape death, and if the deathless gods who dwell on Olympus
grant him to win renown, verily he shall return to his dear
native land, and I will give him my dear child and strong, swift-
footed horses besides which he shall lead home to be cherished
possessions; and may he rejoice in heart possessing these, and
ever remember with gladness the painful contest. May the father
of men and of gods (grant that splendid children may be born to
him)’ (12)


(ll. 21-27) `on the right….
and he, rushing upon her,….
drawing back slightly towards the left. And on them was laid an
unenviable struggle: for she, even fair, swift-footed Atalanta,
ran scorning the gifts of golden Aphrodite; but with him the race
was for his life, either to find his doom, or to escape it.
Therefore with thoughts of guile he said to her:

(ll. 28-29) `”O daughter of Schoeneus, pitiless in heart, receive
these glorious gifts of the goddess, golden Aphrodite…’


(ll. 30-36) `But he, following lightly on his feet, cast the^M
first apple (13): and, swiftly as a Harpy, she turned back and
snatched it. Then he cast the second to the ground with his
hand. And now fair, swift-footed Atalanta had two apples and was
near the goal; but Hippomenes cast the third apple to the ground,
and therewith escaped death and black fate. And he stood panting

Question: what metal were the first coins made from mixture of gold and

Answer: according to Adkins and Adkins: “The first coins were minted in
Lydia from the mid-7th century BCE and were flat pebble-shapped staters
of electrum (a gold and silver alloy).” (p191)

Question: What was Amphidromia?

Answer: A Festival

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Including Amazons, Goddesses, Nymphs, and Archaic Females from Mycenaen and Minoan Cultures